Cognos Interview Questions and Answers
Q.What is a Data Warehouse?
Data Warehouse is a collection of data marts representing historical data from different operation data sources (OLTP). The data from these OLTP are structured and optimized for querying and analysis in a Data Warehouse.
Q.Define Cognos Report Net?
Cognos Report Net is the web-based, dynamic, business intelligence reporting solution from Cognos.
Q.What are the tiers of the ReportNet Architecture?
The ReportNet architecture can be separated into three tiers:
Q.Define Business Intelligence
- Web server
Business Intelligence is a broad category of application programs and technology used for query, Reporting and analyzing the business multi dimensionally.
Q.What is a Data Mart?
Data Mart is a subset of a data warehouse that can provide data for reporting and analysis.
Q.What is HPQS ?
Data Marts are sometimes also called as HPQS (Higher Performance Query Structure).
Q.What is multi dimension analysis?
It is a technique to modify the data so that the data can be view at the different levels of details.
Q.What are the responsibilities of Cognos Administrator?
Cognos Administrator is assigned with following responsibilities.
- Installations and configurations in distributed network environment.
- Creating the Repository (Content Store).
- Perform back up and recovery of Meta Data.
- Developing the user Administration.
- Tuning the servers.
Q.Responsibility of Cognos Architect?
An Architect is responsible for designing the interface by fulfilling the user requirements.Once the interface has been designed it should be rigorously tested before distributing to the end user population.
Q.Roles of the Application Developer?
Design the Reports according to the Report requirement templates.
Testing the each report with the following types of tests.
Q.What is OLAP?
- Unit Testing
- System Testing
- Performance Testing
OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing. It uses database tables (Fact and Dimension tables) to enable multidimensional viewing, analysis and querying of large amount of data.
Q.What are the types of OLAPs?
- DOLAP:-The OLAP tool which works with desktop databases are called as DOLAP Ex:- FoxPro, Clipper, Dbase, Paradox.
- ROLAP:-The OLAP tool, which works with Relational databases, are called as ROLAP. Ex:-Oracle, SQL Server, Tera Data, DB2.
- MOLAP: - The OLAP tool, which works with Multidimensional databases, are called as
Ex:- ESSBASE, Power Cube
- HOLAP:- The OLAP tool which works with Relational databases and Multidimensional database, are called as MOLAP.
Ex:- Cognos, Business Objects.
Q.What is OLTP?
OLTP stands for Online Transaction Processing. Except data warehouse databases the other databases are OLTPs. These OLTP databases are designed for recording the daily operations and transactions of a business.
Q.What is an Interface?
An Interface is a gateway between the user and database.
An Interface contains a logical pointers which pointes to data in the Data Warehouse. An Interface is isolates the complexity and diversity if data bases.
A good OLAP Interface writes an efficient SQL read on accurate data from database. An Interface needs to be designed by fulfilling the report requirement.
Q.What are the types of components installed while loading the Cognos Report Net Software?
When we install the Cognos Report Net Software there are two types of components get installed :-
Q.What is the security module used in cognos?
- Windows based components. 2. Web based components.
The security module used in cognos is cognos access manager.
Q.What is report burn and where it occurs?
Report can be divided into different parts and sending these different parts of report to different users. It occurs in cognos connection.
Q.What is difference between drill through and drill down?
drill through allows u to navigate from summary to detailed information.
drill down also similar kind of thing,
for example will do drill down on year if we drill down on this the next level will come means year contains quaters, it contains
months contains weeks,
week contains days.
so,we can view all the levels through drill down
For example I developed some reports on employee package now I have to develop same reports to another package.
Q.How can I change reports to another package?
Open that report and save as that reportSelect public folder and then select package in which package u want to save then save it.
Q.How to create users and permissions in cognos?
Users and Permissions can be given in Access manager - Administration.
Individual users can be created using their names or their Ids (if any) in Access manager and then be given permissions.
This tool is loaded when you install Cognos 7.x in your machine.
In content manager--we have one component called cognos process manager, using process manager we can integrate with third party tools like LDAP or NTLM. we cannot create users in reportnet directly. in real time we can use LDAP.
Q.What is the difference between macros and prompt?
is set of instructions to run report.
is just like a dialog box which will ask user to select/enter the information what he needs.
A MACRO IS RUN TIME PARAMETER WHICH CAN BE PLACED IN ANY PART OF SQL SELECT STATEMENT,WHERE AS PROMPT IS USED TO GIVE CONDITIONS.
Q.What is Cognos Visualizer and Cognos Scripting?
Cognos scripting is like a language, with this we will create macros, Macro is a set of instructions to run a report.
Cognos Visualizer is a tool for creating charts(bar, pie, histogram......) & maps using datasources(datafiles like mdc,iqd,csv,excel etc).
Q.What is query subject?
A query subject is the basic building block in Framework Manager. A query subject is a set of query items that have an inherent relationship.
Q.What are the Ways to Import Data into Catalog?
Create a catalog with .cat file...
Q.Report studio has two SQL tabs one native SQL and another one cognos SQL which one is get more preference? which one we need to consider?
Q.When we save a report in report studio with what extn it save?
It saves as .XML
It will save as .CRRWhen we save the report it save our specifications like u can choose(in report studio RUN MENU by clinking down icon) HTML,XML,CSV,OR PDF Format if u save the report HTML u can also run report different format as u like or different language also Depends on the format on which the report is being run. By default its .html format. The report can be made to run in any formats like HTML, PDF, XLS, CSV ( Comma separated format) and XML and based on that, report can be saved in either .html, .pdf, .xls, .csv or .xml
When you r viewing the report in the package is shown with extension .crr
Q.How can I convert a list report/Cross tab Report in Cognos EP series into a bar chart or pie chart etc.?
This can be done in Impromptu administrator
Q.How many numbers of cubes can we create on a single model? How can we navigate between those cubes?
Using a single Model, we can create as many number of cubes u want. By using the dimension views...etc. Regarding the navigation, when we save cubes, these act as separator multidimensional databases. There wont be any relations. Navigate means opening the cubes separately.
Q.What is the difference between drill down and drill through?
Drill down means it will navigate from detail information to summary level information within report. Drill through means it will navigate from summary to detail from report to report.
Q.What is the difference between group and association?
In cognos 'group' is used to suppress the duplicate values. And 'associate' is used to suppress the values if it is one-one relationship.
- It Eliminates the Duplicate values from the report break the columns. Its having a one to many relationship.
It Eliminates the Duplicate values from the report and its having one-one relationship.
Both Group & Association eliminate duplicates in a column.But we cannot use Association alone.It should have one to one relationship with grouped column.
Using Association is a performance enhancement technique.
IS USED TO ELIMINATE THE DUPLICATES IN DATA.WHERE A ASSOCIATION IS USED TO HIRE OR SUPPRESS THE VALUES IN 1 TO 1 RELATION.
Q.What is Cardinality?
Cardinality is nothing but relation between tables like
One to One,
One to Many and
Many to Many.
Cardinality is the nature of the relationship. 1-1,1-many relation shipsCardinality is the nature of the relation between two query items
Q.How to test reports in cognos?
Go to power play transformer, on toolbar select RUN menu. In RUN menu there is one option that is TEST BUILD you can test ur report there.
You may also test the outcome of a report by writing and executing SQL Queries and comparing the outcome with the report outcome.
BY USING SYSTEM TESTING, UNIT TESTING, PERFORMANCE TESTING
Q.How u create security to reports?
Basically there are two types of securities for any object Levels of Securities:
- Database level Security
- Row level security
Even we can provide LDAP security too.
By setting up the Governors in frame work manager also we can give the security to the data accessing through the report.
Q.How to find out YEAR CALCULATION? THAT MEANS YOU SHOW THIS YEAR REVENUE AND LAST YEAR REVENUE. WHEN YOU FILTER THIS YEAR VALUE THE RESULT SHOULD DISPLAY THIS YEAR RESULT AND LAST YEAR RESULT?
By using expressions, I mean by using conditional constructs and through graphs. we can view the revenue and calculated data as well.
Q.How to configure the Cognos configurations to work in the Windows 2000 Server machine?
Go to Cognos Configuration and see the settings for cognos in the explorer page. There u can set for win2000 server
Q.What is drill down and slicing and dicing what are the difference between them?
Ans: Drill down
means it will explains the summary level information to lowest level information.
is nothing but cutting edge of the cube.
is nothing but viewing the cube in all possible directions.
is the way to get the more detailed data.
Slicing and dicing
is to get the data according to where clause.
Q.What are the enhancements in Cognos Reportnet ?
Enhancements in Cognos reportnet is Cognos 1.0, 1.1, MR1.1, MR1.2 Cognos 1.0,1.1, MR1.1, MR1.2 AND cognos 8, 8.1.1MR, 8.1.2MR, now new version is 8.2
Q.Enhancement in cognos in the list report:-
1) Apply list column title styles
2) Apply list column body styles
3) Apply table styles
Q.Explain the different stages in creating a report in cognos report net?
Open cognos connection in that select Report studio or query studio it will displays there u have packages(ex: gosales and goretailr (defult)) click on that it display Report studio in that select Object pane select required query subject then click run it displays ur report on report viewer screen.
Q.What is Report item?
Report item is nothing but a query item when it is drag and drop into the work area.
Example in Go sales and retailers package-> Product (is a query subject) and-> Product line is( a query item)->when PL is dropped into the work area then its a report item.
Q.How to perform single sign on in Cognos by using URL?
: In cognos configuration under authentication allow anonymous access should be false.In cgi-bin properties (under iis) the enable anonymous access should be false.
Q.What is loop in framework manager?
Loop is closed path in reportnet it called as ambiguous relationship. That means a query subject contains multiple paths to retrieve the data. It is an exception to resolve to create a shortcut on that query subject otherwise it displays wrong results in reports and performance is degrades.
An undefined join between two tables is known as loop.To resolve loop delete the joins, if these joins are necessary then we have to create shortcuts nothing but alias tables. Place the joins in alias tables.
IS A CLOSED PATH IN FRAME WORK MANAGER DUE TO JOINS.
WE ILL RESOLVED IT BY CREATING ALLIAS AND CREATING SHORT CUTS.
Q.How you migrate reports to cognos 8 from previous versions?
Migration means report net reports to cognos8.rn Upgrade .bat/rs upgrade .sh is a standalone utility that upgrades a single report specification at a time out side of the cognos.
Q.What are the filters in Framework Manager and Report Studio?
Filters in framework manager are
Report studio Filters
- Standalone filters
- Embedded filters
Q.How u migrate the reports from impromptu to reportnet???
- Detail filters
- Summary filters
It's possible to to migrate impromptu reports to reportnet using the migration tool(own by reportnet
1.1)Using this syntax: migratetocrn
HERE crn----Cognos RoportNet
Q.What is IQD? What is contained in IQD?
IQD stands for Impromptu query definition. It is report save extension with .iqd it is use for creating a cube in power play transformer
IQD is Impromptu Query Definition. It contains the SQL query to display the data from the database and SQL query is automatically created based on the columns selected from database.
IQD MEANS IMPROMPTU QUERY DEFFINITION,IT CONTAINS MULTIDIMENTIONAL DATA STRUCTURE WITH ARRAY FORMAT FOR CREATING CUBES.
THIS REPORTS CAN BE SAVED WITH .IQD FILES.
Q.How we check the errors before running the report, Plz let me know the answer?
Before u run a report. U have an option called 'valididate report' in run menu..
Then u can find the errors what u made.
Q.What are the special features in COGNOS REPORTNET?
CRN is web based tool. So it will very useful to view the reports very easily. So that they preferred CRN
Q.How you create IQD In ReportNet Framework?
Open framework manager click on any query subject and go Open the properties dialogue box and u can observe the EXTERNALIZE METHOD u change the iqd.
Q.How to pass multiple values from pick list prompt to sub report filter?
#parameter1#. Give this in ur filter where u pass multiple values
Q.What is Stitch Query in Reportnet?
Framework Manager generates a separate query for each 'FACT' table and joins the result set. This is called Stitched query.
I think when there is no join between two tables and we are dragging in 2 cols from 2 diff tables which doesn’t have joins then cognos will automatically build 2 or more select clauses with full outer join stitching in the 2 select clauses this is called stitched query
Q.What is Snapshot ?
A Snapshot is a Permanent Local Copy Of the Report.Snapshot is Static Data Source it is saved with .imr File it is suitable for Disconnected Network....
Q.What is cube size?
2.0 GBIt depends on ur project requirements.
Q.What is log in cognos?
While creating reports or creating models logs have all information till session closed.
Q.What is associated grouping? And how it works in cognos impromptu?
You can associate one or more data items with a grouped data item. An associated data item should have a one-to-one relationship with the grouped data item. For example, Order No. is a grouped data item.
For each order number, there is an Order Date. Order No. and Order Date have a one-to-one relationship.
Q.What are the limitations of cognos reportnet?
In CRN we can't view multi dimensionally,
-we cant' see a report in excel,
-we can't format a report in CRN
Report net does not support drill through and also bursting of reports is no possible in report net. Also it does not support dimensional analysis
Q.What is loop in framework manager ?
Loop is an very dangerous exception in framework manager we can resolve the loop create alias table. loop Display wrong results in the reportnet. A Loop is a Closed Path Circuit....
Avoid loops: using shortcuts.We have ambiguous relationships types:Hierarchical relationships Recursive relationships Multi-valid relationships. To avoid these relationships using shortcuts.
Q.What are the different ways of adding data in Transformer?
: In transformer u import metadata from architect or catalog to create a cube. We just import metadata. we don’t add data to it
Q.What are slowly changing dimensions? Why we are used SCD?
Slowly Changing Dimensions are those whose data are not fixed.
SCD type 1:
Whose data is not fixed.
Historical data are not saved. Data keeps on changing.-> Current Data
SCD type 2:
Whose data is fixed and also save historical data.
SCD type 3:
Like SCD type 2 only but save historical data in another table. In one table data will updated and in another table historical data will be there.
Depends what we are going to use a DWH or Database.
Q.What r the names of the reports that u prepared?
List report, Cross tab report, pie charts etcs....
Master detail, Drill through, CascadingList, Cross tab, Chart, Map report are the basic report of Cognos.
cognos interview questions cognos interview questions and answers
Q.What is the importance of Dimension in the cognos.?
Without Dimension and Fact cannot make a relation between tables it could not be use for joins and retrieve the data as a form of reports in cognos. Dimension is a major subject area through which we can analysis our business.
Q.What is exact catalog size?
There is no limit for catalog size. It may be 3MB Or 4MB.
Q.Give me some examples for Lifecycle reporting, I mean which lifecycle we will use for reporting?
There is no specific reporting lifecycle. We can generate the reports from data warehouse/data marts or we can generate the reports directly from OLTP systems.What I mean generating reports from OLTP systems is loading data into one system and generating the reports. But this is not recommended. This will depends on the business.
1) Generating reports from the OLAP interface system retrieving the data from the data warehouse to generating forms and reports.
2) They can use Business intelligence project life cycle.
Q.HOW MANY LEVELS CAN BE USED IN DRILL THROUGH REPORTS?
Two levels summary and detail.
Q.Where u can save the Report net documentation in our local system?
Whenever we Install Cognos Server we get it documentation alone otherwise we can store it in Deployment Folder of Cognos
Q.What is model and how to create model and how to test model?
Create a Model In framework Manager and then publish it, make sure that Model meets the requirements, don't overload the model with unwanted query items
Model is nothing but a project. And the project will be created by framework manager in which we can extract the metadata from the various operational sources... we will test the model by using the TOAD
Model contains meta data which is related to business reporting Information. We import this data from the data base. Using this metadata we are creating Packages, Publishing packages, This metadata contains query subjects and namespaces.........
Q.How to crate cubes in transformer ?
Cube can be created by using different data sources.
iqd, tex file Cube creation by using iqd data sources.
These iqd sources are coming from impromptu
Q.How u burst the reports? if u r bursted reports is not reached to destination how u identify???When You Import data into catalog You have complex columns names. How do you change the Name of those columns?
First you have to click on column header which you have to change. Then in property pane you will found name option. Then change column name.
Q.How to create measures and Dimensions?
By using the Framework Manager we can create measures and dimensions according to our business needs.
Q.How to pass parameter value into html design page?
(That is YOU Create a html page and use that page in your cognos 8 report header.take my question is how to use parameter value in the html page .)
So, in order to achieve that we include an additional expression (&run.prompt=false) http:///cognos8/cgi-bin/cognos.cgi?b_action=xts.run&m=portal/report-viewer.xts&ui.action=run&ui.object=%2fcontent%2fpackage%5b%40name%3d%27(optional)%27%5d%2freport%5b%40name%3d%27%27%5d&run.prompt=false&p_p_year=2007&p_p_month=09
Here p_year and p_month are the parameter name for prompt
Q.WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIST REPORT AND CROSSTAB REPORT?
List report show data in rows and columns versus a cross tab report show data in grids with dimension in rows and columns and measures in cells or in the intersection points.
List Report and Cross tab report both contains rows and columns but difference is list report is a detail report for analysis whereas cross tab report is the intersection of data or summarized data for analysis.
Q.How to create a dynamic column name in Cognos?
Ans: These are the steps -
- Create a calculated column which contains the information that the header is to contain, such as "Report for year 1999" (concatenated text and date to string sub string extraction).
- Highlight the report, and then right-click.
iii. Select Properties, and then click the Headers/Footers tab.
- Clear the Column Title Header check box. This will remove the headers from your columns.
- Reinsert the rest of the column headers; insert text will work.
- For the dynamic column, from the Insert menu, click Data and select the calculated column you created and insert it into the report.
In Cognos 8.0
, First create a Calculated Data Item, select the list, associate it with the Query in Which Calculated Data Item is created, then click on Structure and then List Header and Footers. Check List Header and make the Box Type of the Column header as None.
Unlock and then drag the Calculated Data Item into the required header which will look like a Column Header in the report.
For making a column name dynamic the only thing that you have to do is insert a layout calculations from the toolbox tab in report studio.
I came across this answer because I wanted each column in across tabulation to have a text description different from the variable (column's) name. Cognos's gloriously useless documentation says nothing on how to do this and adding text isn't an allowed action in page design mode (the error message you get goes beyond unhelpful).
To have the column titles, row footers, etc.,
1) Switch to page structure view in report studio
2) Expand the crosstab by clicking the plus signs untilcrosstab row levels, crosstab level(variable_name), etc. are visible.
3) From the insertable objects, drag a 'Block' at the level you’d like to add the text. This takes some experimenting.
4) after the block's been added, add into the block a Text Item from the insertable objects.
5) a window will open and you can type in whatever text you want.It's no wonder Jim Goodnight has such harshness towards Cognos.
Q) What r the migration tools available in the market with respect to cognos such as impromptu reports are migrated to cognos reportnet?
Reportnet1.1 migration tool is available to migrate the impromptu report to reportnet.
Q) Can reportnet supports cubes?
Q) What are versions of cognos from starting release to latest in the market?
Cognos EP7 series,Cognos reportnet1.1 Mr1,MR2,MR3,MR4,cognos8.0,8.1, 8.2,8.3
Q) What is IQD? What is contained in IQD? How you create IQD In ReportNet FrameWork?
IQD is impromptu Query Definition. It's a transformer report. To use an IQd in reportnet framework manager, there is a process called externalization using which you can import the IQD.
IQD Is impromptu query definition, the name it self indicating dat, it contains the SQL statement. To create the iqd in Frame work manager, create a new query subject with required query items .
Set the Externalise method property of that Query subject to 'iqd'. While the publishing the package select the 'Generate the files for Externalized query subjects'. And publish it to the local machine, which can be used as data source for Transfromer model.
Q) How u provide security to reports? How u provide security to packages ?
Through Access Manager.
Q) How to select multiple values from Type-in prompt?
Example - I want to enter into type-in prompt in 'Product name--- Liza' display report data in 'product name is Leza' only OR I want to enter into type-in prompt in 'All', that time display report data in all are report data.
Q) How is possible this Scenario using in type-in prompt.?
Here we can enter one value, here it can't shows lovs. In catalog colomns we can select the value for which we can insert the pick list.
Can you be more specific abut this. What i understand from the question, you have a prompt page with a text box prompt and the user types the value. When the user types the product name '
laptop' and clicks 'finish' the report page has to display all the records relevent to laptop. When the user types 'All' in the text box prompt and clicks 'Finish' the report has to display all the products.
BY USING STRING VARIABLE WE CAN SELECT(OR)ENTER MULTIPLE VALUES By using the following condition as the filter for the textbox prompt we can get the data for the specified product as well as All products when we type ALL in textbox prompt
Product name = ?P_ProductName? or 'ALL' in (?P_ProductName?)
Q.What is Defect/Bug/Error Life Cycle?
--During requirement phase if we find its called as defect.A defect in requirement.
-----During testing phase if we find its called a BUG.
Error Life Cycle
2) Assigned(assigned to dev)
3) Dev-passed(after fixing)
4) Under testing(when testing team receives the fix)
5) Closed (if working fine) else reopen
Defect is the issue caught while Testing, When the as said is accepted by the developers then the as said is called as a Bug;Error always occurs in the coding during Unit Testing by the development team.
(Issues regarding the coding are said Error's)
A Mistake in coding is called an ERROR. This mistake detected by test engineer during testing called defect(or) issue. This defect (or)issue accepted by defect tracking team as code related defect called BUG.
When we found a defect /Bug we will set the status New and set the severity and then assign to the junior senior people based on the severity they will set the priority and then they will assign to corresponding developer based on the severity dev fix it. And again tester again re-tested he will fix correctly close the bug, otherwise then again re assign to the corresponding dev.
Q.What is Framework manager?
Frame Work Manager is windows based metadata development or metadata modeling tool for Cognos Report Net.
Q.What is Folder?
A Folder is used to organize the Query Subjects.
Relationship is a connection that explains how the data in one Query Subject relates to data in other Query Subjects.
Q.What is a Package?
A container for models, reports, and so on. Modelers create packages in Framework Manager to publish models to the ReportNet server.
Q.What is Physical layer?
The Physical layer provides the physical query layer and is made up primarily of data source and stored procedure query subjects. It acts as the foundation for the presentation layer.
Q.What is Presentation layer?
The Presentation layer makes it easier for report authors to find and understand their data. The Presentation layer is made up primarily of model query subjects that you create.
Q.What is a Model?
A model in Frame work manager is a business presentation of the structure of the data from one or more databases. Or A model is a set of related query subjects and other objects.
Q.What are Fact Tables?
A Fact Table is a table that contains summarized numerical (facts) and historical data.
This Fact Table has a foreign key – primary key relation with a dimension table.
Q.What are the types of Facts?
The types of Facts are:
Q.What are the types of SQL?
- Additive Facts:- A Fact which can be summed up for any of the dimension available in the Fact Table.
- Semi-Additive Facts:- A Fact which can be summed up to a few dimensions and not for all dimensions and not for all dimensions available in the Fact Table.
- Non-Additive Fact:- a fact which cannot be summed up for any of the dimensions available in the Fact Table.
SQL is the industry language for creating, updating and querying relational data base management system. Types of SQL.
Q.Define Cognos SQL?
- Cognos SQL
- Native SQL
- Pass-through SQL.
By default Cognos FM uses Cognos SQL to create and edit Query subjects.
- Can contain metadata from multiple data sources.
- Have fewer database restrictions
- Interact more effectively with Cognos applications.
You can not enter nonstandard SQL.
Q.Define Native SQL?
Native SQL is the SQL, the data source uses, such as Oracle SQL, but you cannot uses Native SQL in a query subject that references more than one data source in the project.
- Performance is optimized across all related query subjects.
- You can use SQL that is specific to your database.
Q.Define Pass-Through SQL?
- You cannot use SQL that the data source does not support for sub queries.
- The query subject may not work on different database type.
Pass-Through SQL lets you use native SQL without any of the restrictions the data source imposes on sub queries.
- You can enter any SQL supported by the database.
1.There is no opportunity for Frame work manager to automatically optimize performance. The SQL may not work on a different data source.
Q.What are Query Processing Types?
There are two types of query processing.
Q.What is Query Subject?
- Limited Local: The database server does as much of the SQL processing and Execution as possible. However, some reports or report sections use local SQL processing.
- Database only: The database server does all the SQL processing and execution with the exception of tasks not supported by the database. An error appears if any reports of report sections require local SQL processing.
A Query Subject maps to the table in the database.
A Query Subject uses an SQL to retrieve the data from the data source.
A Query Subject is also known as Business View.
Q.What are the sources to create new Query subjects?
A new Query Subject can be created from the following sources.
Q.What is Multi Database Access in Cognos Report Net?
- Model (Query subjects & Query Items)
- Data Sources (Tables and Columns)
- Stored Procedure.
In Cognos Report Net a Project can be created from multiple databases. The databases can be either homogenous or hydrogenous.
Q.What are Parameter Maps?
A Parameter Map is a key value pair used in creation of conditional Query Subjects. A Parameter map sub situates the values at the query at runtime.
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