Linux Admin Training
Get hands-on experience of Linux administration from basic to the advanced level taught by live industry experts with practical use cases at Linux Admin Online Training Course and become a master in Linux administration.
Linux is one of the most popular platforms to run various types of applications in the IT industry. Hands-on experience in Linux development and administration do have a high demand in the IT market. Kits online training provides the best knowledge and hands-on experience in Linux administration by live experts online. Kits Linux administration online training course gives you the best knowledge on Linux administration concepts like monitoring and troubleshooting. This Linux administration course starts with the basics of the Linux environment and then moves with shell programming and so on.
Basic concepts of Operating System, Kernel, Shell & File System structure
Basic concepts of Linux
Differences between CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux & Fedora
Basic commands of Linux
Advanced Linux Commands
Network Based Installation
Perform command tasks using the GNOME GUI
Launch applications from command line & GNOME interface
Customize X Window System
Querying and updating software packages
Modifying users profile
Creating and deleting groups
Important system files related to user administration
Creating, modifying and deleting ACL’s
Administrating Linux machine remotely
Using Webmin as a tool for configuring various services on Linux
Using mkfs, commands to create file systems
Mounting various file systems
Auto mounting of file system
Creating Quotas for users
Auditing Quotas limit
Backup and restoring using tar and cpio commands
RAID levels (0, 1 and 5) configuration using RAID tools
Resizing the Partition using LVM
Learn when and where it's convenient for you.Utilise the course's practical exposure through high-quality videos.Real-Time Instructors Will Guide You Through The Course From Basic to Advanced Levels
Receive A Live Demonstration Of Each Subject From Our Skilled Faculty Obtain LMS Access Following Course Completion Acquire Materials for Certification
The Class Mode Of Training, Or Attend An Online Training Lecture At Your Facility From A Subject Matter Expert With discussions, exercises, and real-world use cases, learn for a full day.Create Your Curriculum Using the Project Requirements
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Satisfied with the money paid. Thank you KITS for offering the best training
- Bhakiya Lakshmi
I recommend this place to enhance my knowledge of Linux Administration. Felt happy to complete the training
All the sessions were done on time. The course was completed on time. Thanks to the entire team
- Saran Jayanthi
Thanks to KITS for enhancing my knowledge on Linux Administration from basic to the advanced level.
- Hardik M.
It was a great experience to acquire hands-on experience in Linux administration. Thank you KITS
- Rajesh Ghanta
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Beginner Level To Advance Level
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Get hands-on experience of Linux administration from basic to the advanced level taught by live industry experts with practical use cases at Linux Admin Online Training Course and become a master in L
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KITS instructor-led online course will help you with the necessary skills to become a successful Linux Administrator. KITS Linux online training course will help you in imparting the practical knowled
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What is Android ?
Gadgets have become a part of life. Today arrival, as well as utilization of gadgets, is increasing exponentially. And we people cannot imagine our life without gadgets. Today even kindergarten people were using these mobile phones. Moreover, in this COVID-19 situation, these gadgets were the common medium for communication. Even the primary standard kids were using these smart gadgets for communication. Among those many gadgets that were available in the market, the smartphone is the most commonly utilized gadget among people. In the last decade, the smartphone is a big thing that is utilized by business people. But, in this decade, this has become the most common gadget among people. In most of these gadgets, android is the most commonly utilized operating system. Even there are many other operating systems like ios, Linux, android stands on the top of those operating systems. Here the surprising thing this platform has arrived after Linux. But this operating system has replaced the Linux. So have your ever think of “ How this operating system has replaced Linux? ” Also “ what makes android so popular? ”. Read the entire article to know the details. Before going to know the in-depth details, let us have an initial look at its definition What is Android? Android is an open-source Linux operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It is developed by Open Handset Alliance This platform offers a unified approach to application development for mobile devices. This approach makes the application more capable of running the software on different android devices. This Android platform has been divided into various versions numbers. These versions were nothing but significant changes from one to the other. The initial beta version for this Software development kit (SDK) by released by google in 2007. And the commercial version Android 1.0 was released in Septemeber 2008. From then it has been continuously releasing the updates. The latest version of Android is Android Q that is the 10th version of this operating system. Today most of the gadgets that were released in 2020 works on Android 9 (or)10. And we were going to expect Android 11 in the next year. Utilization: Even though this application, arose into the market in recent times, today it has become the dominant mobile cross-platform across the globe. According to the stat counter, android holds over 74% of the global mobile OS market share as of July 2020. This operating system was designed with mobile in mind. The place, where the phone applications and applications live. Today everything you see on your device is a part of the operating system. Moreover, whenever your device gets a call, text message (or) an email the OS processes that information and puts it in a readable format. Top Android device manufacturers like Samsung, HTC, Motorola usually have a skin on the top of the OS. A skin is a custom design that adds extra features to your phone with different icons and tweaks designed to provide a unique to your gadget. The popular skins include Samsung One UI and One Plus. A phone without major customization is generally referred to as a stock android and the phone with minor changes was known as near stock. The hardware that supports this software is based on the ARM architecture platform. Today this platform contains millions of apps available that help you to manage your life one (or) the other way. Android programming supports full java programming. Do want to know more on this platform, then visit Android Online Training Since we have gotten the basic idea regarding its utilization, let us have a look at its architecture. Architecture: An android is a software operating system. It contains a stack of software components that is divided into 5 sections and four main layers. They are: Linux kernel: Android uses a powerful Linux kernel and supports a wide range of hardware devices. The kernel is the heart of the operating system that manages the input and output requests from the software. It provides basic system functionalities like process management, memory management, and device management like camera, keypad as well as a display to handle all these things. Linux is good at networking and does not require and does require to interface with the peripheral hardware. The kernel itself does not interact directly with the user but interacts with the shell as well as other hardware devices on the system. Libraries: These were on the top of the Linux kernel. There is a set of libraries including open web browsers such as WebKit, library libc. These libraries are used to play the audio as well as the video files. The SQL lite is a database that is useful for storage as well as sharing the application data. These SSL libraries are responsible for internet security etc Runtime: The runtime provides a key virtual environment known as Dalvik Virtual Machine. It is a kind of java virtual machine that is specifically designed and optimized for android. The Dalvik VM is a process Virtual machine in Android systems. It is a software that runs the app on android devices. The Dalvik VM makes use of many Linux core features like memory management, multithreading that is in java language. This Dalvik VM enables every application to run its process. This Dalvik VM executes the files in .dex format. Application Framework: The application framework layer is capable of providing the higher-level services to applications such as windows manager, view system, package manager, resource manager, etc. It allows the application developers to make use of there services in their application Features: This application framework has a rich set of features. Some of them were : a)It is an open-source b)Anyone can customize this application platform c)Availability of a huge number of applications. Hence the customer can choose the best product as per the need d)Capable of providing interesting features like Whether details, Opening screen, RSS feeds, etc e) Has an ability to provide support for the messaging services (SMS and MMS), Web browser, Storage(SQL Lite), Connectivity(GSM, CDMA, Bluetooth, WIFI, media, handset layout. Hence likewise there are many interesting features of this operating application. You people can get hands-on experience on application development on this platform through Android Online Course. I hope you people have got enough idea regarding Android. In the upcoming post of this blog, I'll be sharing the details of the runtime environment and the basic program on the android platform. Meanwhile, have a glance at our Android Interview Questions and get ready to crack the interview.Continue reading
What is Linux?
Linux is the widely used operating system that is used in most security areas like banking across the globe. Many firms use this operating system to enhance security and increase data confidentiality from hackers. Even though many operating systems were available in the market, the importance of this operating system has not decreased in the market. Do you know why? Read the following article to know the details Let's start our discussion with, What is an operating system? An Operating system is software that manages all the hardware resources, associated with a laptop(or) desktop. This operating system is responsible for managing the communication between the software as well as the hardware. Moreover, no software would work without an operating system. What is Linux? Similar to Windows and iOS, Linux is an operating system. It is one of the most powerful platforms available on this planet. As an operating system, the Linux software sits below the other software on the computer. This software receives requests from those programs and relays these requests to the computer hardware. This platform was designed similar to the UNIX and is capable of running on a variety of platforms from phones to supercomputers. Since Linux operating system is open-source, the combination of software may vary among the Linux distributions. Know more on Linux from real-time professionals at Linux Online Training What is the benefit of the Open Source Operating system? a)It has the freedom to run the program for any purpose. b)It has the freedom to study how the program works and allows the user to make the changes c)It also allows the user to distribute the modified versions to the others. What does the Linux Operating system consist of? The Linux operating system comprises of several pieces. They are: a)Boot loader: This is a software that manages the boot process of the computer. For most users, it might be a splash screen that pops up and eventually goes away to boot an operating system b)Kernel: This is the core of the system that manages CPU, memory, and peripheral devices. It is the operating system's lower level. c)Init System: This is a subsystem that bootstraps the user space and is charged with the controlling daemons. Systemd is one of the most widely used init system. This system is responsible for managing the boot process once the initial booting is handed over from the boot loader. d)Daemons: These are the background services that startup during the boot (or) when you log in to the system. e)Graphical Server: This is the subsystem that displays graphics on the monitor. It is commonly called the ‘X’ Server (or) X. f)Desktop Environment: This is a piece that the users interact with. They are many desktop environments to choose from. Each desktop environment includes built-in applications such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, and games. g)Applications: Desktop environments don’t offer a full array of apps. Just like windows and Mac Os, Linux offers thousands of applications that can be easily installed. How Linux is different from other operating systems? In many ways, Linux is similar to the other operating system that you have used before. Like another operating system, Linux has a graphical interface and has rich software like word processors, photo editors, video editors, and so on. In the most number of ways, the software creator has made the Linux version of the same program to use on the other systems. On the other hand, Firstly, Linux is an open-source operating system. The code used to create Linux is free and is available for the users to view, edit for the users with appropriate skills. Even though the core pieces of the Linux operating systems were the same, many Linux distributions include different software operations. Linux users can choose the core components such as display graphics and other user interface components. What are the Linux distributions? Many agencies modified the Linux operating system and make their systems. This operating system is available in the different distribution in the market. It provides different flavors of Linux operating systems to the users. Any user can choose any distribution according to the needs. Some of the popular Linux distributions are Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux Mint, Debian, centosos, and many more. For beginners, ubuntu and Linux mint were extremely useful. And for a proficient developer, Debian and Fedora will be a good choice. How to use Linux? We can use Linux as an interactive user interface as well as from the terminal. Different distributions have different distributions but almost all the commands will have the same behavior for all the distributions. You can run Linux from the terminal by pressing “Ctrl + Alt +T ”. And to explore its functionality press the application button given on the left side of your desktop. What is the difference between Linux and Unix? Unix is an operating system developed in 1970 at Bell Labs by Ken Thomson. Linux and Unix were similar in many ways. Linux is created to be indistinguishable from Unix. The major differences between Linux and Unix were as follows: Linux is an open-source operating system and is freely available to everyone whereas Unix is also an operating system that can be used only by the copyrighters. Linux suits best for the home user, developer as well as a student whereas Unix suits best for work stations, mainframes as well as servers. Linux is freely distributed and downloaded whereas Unix Copyright vendors decide the different costs for their respective operating systems. Linux supports more file system than Unix Linux is just a kernel, whereas Unix is a complete system of packages. It has higher security that has 60-100 viruses to date whereas Unix has 85-120 viruses to date. Likewise, there are many differences between Linux and Unix. By reaching the end of this blog, I hope you people have gained enough information regarding Linux. When you interact with the operating system, you people can acquire practical knowledge on this operating system. And you can also get practical exposure to this platform from real-time working professionals at Linux Online Course. In the upcoming post of this blog, I'll be sharing the details on the installation and various commands of the Linux operating system. Meanwhile, have a look at our Linux Interview QuestionsContinue reading
Advanced Linux Interview Questions
Q.What Is The Difference Between Ctrl-c And Ctrl-z? Ans: When you have a process in progress which handle your prompt, there are some signals (orders) that we can send to theses process to indicate what we need: Control+C sends SIGINT which will interrupt the application. Usually causing it to abort, but a process is able to intercept this signal and do whatever it likes: for instance, from your Bash prompt, try hitting Ctrl-C. In Bash, it just cancels whatever you've typed and gives you a blank prompt (as opposed to quitting Bash) Control+Z sends SIGTSTP to a foreground application, effectively putting it in the background on suspended mode. This is very useful when you want the application to continue its process while you are doing another job in the current shell. When you finish the job, you can go back into the application by running fg (or %x where x is the job number as shown in jobs). Q.I Want To Troubleshoot My Network But I Don’t Know How Does The Traceroute Command Work Exactly? Ans: Traceroute is a program that shows you the route taken by packets through a network. It traces the route of packets from source to destination. It is commonly used when your network doesn’t work as well and you want to examine where can be the problem. Traceroute sends a UDP packet to the destination taking advantage of ICMP’s messages. ICMP has two types of messages: error-reporting messages and query messages. Query messages are generally used to diagnose network problems (the ping tool uses ICMP’s query messages). The error-reporting messages as the name suggest report errors if any in the IP packet; it uses Destination unreachable and Time exceeded errors message. It works by theses steps: Traceroute creates a UDP packet from the source to destination with a TTL(Time-to-live) = 1 The UDP packet reaches the first router where the router decrements the value of TTL by 1, thus making our UDP packet’s TTL = 0 and hence the packet gets dropped. Noticing that the packet got dropped, it sends an ICMP message (Time exceeded) back to the source. Traceroute makes a note of the router’s address and the time taken for the round-trip. It sends two more packets in the same way to get an average value of the round-trip time. Usually, the first round-trip takes longer than the other two due to the delay in ARP finding the physical address, the address stays in the ARP cache during the second and the third time and hence the process speeds up. The steps that have occurred up til now, occur again and again until the destination has been reached. The only change that happens is that the TTL is incremented by 1 when the UDP packet is to be sent to next router/host. Once the destination is reached, Time exceeded ICMP message is NOT sent back this time because the destination has already been reached. But, the UDP packet used by Traceroute specifies the destination port number to be one that is not usually used for UDP. Hence, when the destination computer verifies the headers of the UDP packet, the packet gets dropped due to the improper port being used and an ICMP message (this time – Destination Unreachable) is sent back to the source. When Traceroute encounters this message, it understands that the destination has been reached. Even the destination is reached 3 times to get the average of the round-trip time. Q.Nscd Sometimes Die Itself And Dns Resolving Doesn't Happen Properly. How Can We Avoid Nscd For Dns And There Is A Disadvantage To Bypass It? Ans: nscd is a daemon that provides a cache for the most common name service requests. When resolving a user, group, host, service..., the process will first try to connect to the nscd socket (something like /var/run/nscd/socket). If nscd has died, the connect will fail, and so nscd won't be used and that should not be a problem. If it's in a hung state, then the connect may hang or succeed. If it succeeds the client will send its request (give IP address for www.google.com, passwd entries...). Now, you can configure nscd to disable caching for any type of database (for instance by having enable-cache hosts no in /etc/nscd.conf for the hosts database). However, if nscd is in a hung state, it may not be able to even give that simple won't do answer, so that won't necessarily help. nscd is a caching daemon, it's meant to improve performance. Disabling it would potentially make those lookups slower. However, that's only true for some kind of databases. For instance, if user/service/group databases are only in small files (/etc/passwd, /etc/group, /etc/services), then using nscd for those will probably bring little benefit if any. nscd will be useful for the hosts database. Q. How Can I Redirect Both Stderr And Stdin At Once? Ans: command > file.log 2>&1 : Redirect stderr to "where stdout is currently going". In this case, that is a file opened in append mode. In other words, the &1 reuses the file descriptor which stdout currently uses. command 2>&1 | tee -a file.txt Q. What Is The Difference Between /dev/random And /dev/urandom To Generate Random Data? Ans: The Random Number Generator gathers environmental noise from device drivers and other sources into entropy pool. It also keeps an estimate of Number of bits of noise in entropy pool. It is from this entropy pool, random numbers are generated. /dev/random will only return Random bytes from entropy pool. If entropy pool is empty, reads to /dev/random will be blocked until additional environmental noise is gathered. This is suited to high-quality randomnesses, such as one-time pad or key generation. /dev/urandom will return as many random bytes as requested. But if the entropy pool is empty, it will generate data using SHA, MD5 or any other algorithm. It never blocks the operation. Due to this, the values are vulnerable to theoretical cryptographic attack, though no known methods exist. For cryptographic purposes, you should really use /dev/random because of nature of data it returns. Possible waiting should be considered as an acceptable tradeoff for the sake of security, IMO. When you need random data fast, you should use /dev/urandom of course. Both /dev/urandom and /dev/random are using the exact same CSPRNG (a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator). They only differ in very few ways that have nothing to do with “true” randomness and /dev/urandom is the preferred source of cryptographic randomness on UNIX-like systems. Q. What Is The Difference Between Tar And Zip ? Ans: Sometimes sysadmins Linux need to save data safety and to this, it is recommended to compress the data. We have some methods or commands for compression on Linux. So frequently asked questions could be why should I use this command instead of another one example, why should I use tar instead of zip. To answer this, you should know the difference between the two. tar is only an archiver whereas zip is an archiver and compressor. Tar uses gzip and bzip2 to achieve compression. With using tar command, we preserve metadata information of file and directories like seiuid, setgid and sticky bit information which are very important while zip doesn't preserve theses information. It is very important for criticals information. Other advantages of using tar is the fact that it assembles all the files into a single file to compress directly while zip compress file by file. Q. How To Check Open Ports On A Remote Server Without Netcat Or Nmap Linux Command? Ans: In the work of sysadmin, we can sometimes want to check open ports on our remote server. But if we are on a machine where can not install nmap or we don't have the possibility to install a tool which can help us to check open ports, what could we do? We can check it with bash using /dev/tcp or /dev/udp to open a TCP or UDP connection to the associated socket. The command behavior is: $ echo > /dev/tcp/$host/$port we can associate a message to display if the port is opened $ echo > /etc/tcp/188.8.131.52/53 && echo "OPEN PORT" OPEN PORT $ echo > /dev/tcp/184.108.40.206/80 && echo "GOOD" || echo "NOT OPEN" -bash: connect: Connection timed out -bash: /dev/tcp/220.127.116.11/80: Connection timed out NOT OPEN Q. Systemd Over Init System, What Do You Think? Ans: Systemd is well designed. It was conceived from the top, not just to fix bugs, but to be a correct implementation of the base system services. A systemd, may refer to all the packages, utilities and libraries around daemon. It was designed to overcome the shortcomings of init. It itself is a background process which is designed to start processes in parallel, thus reducing the boot time and computational overhead. It has a lot other features as compared to init while Sysvinit was never designed to cope with the dynamic/event-based architecture of the current Linux kernel. The only reason why we still use it today is the cost of a migration. Systemd ships a growing number of useful, unified command-line interfaces for system settings and control (timedatectl, bootctl, hostnamectl, loginctl, machinectl, kernel-install, localectl). In Debian, they use the existing configuration files without breaking compatibility. Systemd makes the boot process much simpler, entirely removing the need to specify dependencies in many cases thanks to D-Bus activation, socket activation, file/inotify activation and udev integration. Systemd supports SELinux integration while SysV doesn't Systemd can handle the boot process from head to toe, without needing to use any of the existing shell scripts. Systemd extends the logging features of the system in many ways with journald, and can remain integrated with the existing rsyslog daemon. Logs are in a structured format, attributed to filename, line of code, PID and service. They include the early boot (starting from initramfs). They can be quickly filtered and programmatically accessed through an efficient interface. Systemd unit files, unlike SysV scripts, can usually be shipped by upstream, or at least shared with other distributions (already more than 1000 existing unit files in Fedora) without any changes, the Debian specifics being handled by systemd itself. Systemd is incredibly fast (1 second to boot). It was not designed with speed in mind, but doing things correctly avoids all the delays currently incurred by the boot process. The transition plan is easy, since existing init scripts are treated as first-class services: scripts can depend (using LSB headers) on units, units can depend on scripts. More than 99% of init scripts can be used without a modification. It is not just init. It unifies, in fewer lines of code, everything that is related to starting services and managing session groups: user login, cron jobs, network services (inetd), virtual TTY management… Having a single system to handle all of that allows us to remove a lot of cruft, and to use less memory on the system. Q.What Basics Measures Could You Take To Secure An Ssh Connection? Ans: For Linux sysadmins, it is frequent to access servers by ssh. But are we sure the communication established is really good secured? There some additionals very simple steps that can be taken to initially harden the SSH service, such as: Disabling root login, and even password-based logins will further reinforce the security of the server. Disabling password-based logins and allow key based logins which are secured but can be taken further by restricting their use from only certain IP addresses. Changing the standard port to something other significantly decreases random brute force attempts from the internet Forcing the service to use only version 2 of the protocol will introduce both security and feature enhancement. The whitelist approach can be taken, where only the users that belong to a certain list can log in via SSH to the server. Q.What Is Lvm And Does It Required On Linux Servers? Ans : LVM is a logical volume manager. It requires to resize filesystem size. This size can be extended and reduced using lvextend and lvreduce commands respectively. You can think of LVM as dynamic partitions, meaning that you can create/resize/delete LVM partitions from the command line while your Linux system is running: no need to reboot the system to make the kernel aware of the newly-created or resized partitions. LVM also provides: You can extend over more than one disk if you have more than one hard-disk. They are not limited by the size of one single disk, rather by the total aggregate size. You can create a (read-only) snapshot of any LV (Logical Volume). You can revert the original LV to the snapshot at a later time, or delete the snapshot if you no longer need it. This is handy for server backups for instance (you cannot stop all your applications from writing, so you create a snapshot and backup the snapshot LV), but can also be used to provide a "safety net" before a critical system upgrade (clone the root partition, upgrade, revert if something went wrong). you can also set up writeable snapshots too. It allows you to freeze an existing Logical Volume in time, at any moment, even while the system is running. You can continue to use the original volume normally, but the snapshot volume appears to be an image of the original, frozen in time at the moment you created it. You can use this to get a consistent filesystem image to back up, without shutting down the system. You can also use it to save the state of the system, so that you can later return to that state if you mess things up. You can even mount the snapshot volume and make changes to it, without affecting the original. Contact for more on Linux Online TrainingContinue reading
Android Interview Questions
Q.What Is Android? Ans: Android is a stack of software for mobile devices which has Operating System, middleware and some key applications. The application executes within its own process and its own instance of Dalvik Virtual Machine. Many Virtual Machines run efficiently by a DVM device. DVM executes Java languages byte code which later transforms into .dex format files. Q.Explain About The Exceptions Of Android? Ans: The following are the exceptions that are supported by Android * InflateException : When an error conditions are occurred, this exception is thrown * Surface.OutOfResourceException: When a surface is not created or resized, this exception is thrown * SurfaceHolder.BadSurfaceTypeException: This exception is thrown from the lockCanvas() method, when invoked on a Surface whose is SURFACE_TYPE_PUSH_BUFFERS * WindowManager.BadTokenException: This exception is thrown at the time of trying to add view an invalid WindowManager.LayoutParamstoken. Q.Why To Use Android? Ans: Android is useful because: *It is simple and powerful SDK *Licensing, Distribution or Development fee is not required *Easy to Import third party Java library *Supporting platforms are ? Linux, Mac Os, Windows Q.Describe Android Application Architecture? Ans: Android Application Architecture has the following components: * Services - like Network Operation * Intent - To perform inter-communication between activities or services * Resource Externalization - such as strings and graphics * Notification signaling users - light, sound, icon, notification, dialog etc. * Content Providers - They share data between applications Q.What Are The Features Of Android? Ans: *Components can be reused and replaced by the application framework. *Optimized DVM for mobile devices *SQLite enables to store the data in a structured manner. *Supports GSM telephone and Bluetooth, WiFi, 3G and EDGE technologies *The development is a combination of a device emulator, debugging tools, memory profiling and plug-in for Eclipse IDE. Q.Are The Android Releases Available In A Rom? Ans: No, Android is not yet available in a ROM format. Currently Android is installed by using a clean SD Card, and booted from there. It is booted by running a special application called 'Haret.exe' residing on your SD Card which will terminate the Windows kernel and boot into Linux/Android. It can't easily be run from ROM because a) it's too experimental to risk putting in ROM and then killing a device and b) WinMo does some hardware initialisation that isn't documented, but is needed before Android can run. Q.Can You Play Android 2.1 Games On Android 2.2? Ans: no.as i have a 2.2 android phone, its very hard to find games for it. The 2.2 android will not be able to support that type of game. Q.What Is Android Runtime? Ans: Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the corelibraries of the Java programming language. Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included ?dx? tool. Q.Creating An Android Application Using The Eclipse Plugin? Ans: Using the Android Eclipse plugin is the fastest and easiest way to start creating a new Androidapplication. The plugin automatically generates the correct project structure for your application, and keeps the resources compiled for you automatically. It is still a good idea to know what is going on though. Take a look at Overview of an AndroidApplication to understand the basics of how an Android application works. It is also recommended that you take a look at the ApiDemos application and the other sample applications in the samples/ folder in the SDK. Finally, a great way to started with Android development in Eclipse is to follow both the Hello Android and Notepad code tutorials. In particular, the start of the Hello Android tutorial is an excellent introduction to creating a new Android application in Eclipse. Q.Can I Write Code For Android Using C/c++? Ans: Android applications are written using the Java programming language.Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Java programming language.Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included ?dx? tool.Android only supports applications written using the Java programming language at this time. Q.What Is The Ttl (time To Live)? Why Is It Required? Ans: TTL is a value in data packet of Internet Protocol. It communicates to the network router whether or not the packet should be in the network for too long or discarded. Usually, data packets might not be transmitted to their intended destination within a stipulated period of time. The TTL value is set by a system default value which is an 8-bit binary digit field in the header of the packet. The purpose of TTL is, it would specify certain time limit in seconds, for transmitting the packet header. When the time is exhausted, the packet would be discarded. Each router receives the subtracts count, when the packet is discarded, and when it becomes zero, the router detects the discardedpackets and sends a message, Internet Control Message Protocol message back to the originating host. TTL(time to live) apart from determining the life time of a packet in a network also helps in avoiding the wastage of bandwith Q.How Is Nine-patch Image Different From A Regular Bitmap? Ans: It is a resizable bitmap resource that can be used for backgrounds or other images on the device. The NinePatch class permits drawing a bitmap in nine sections. The four corners are unscaled; the four edges are scaled in one axis, and the middle is scaled in both axes. Q.Explain Ip Datagram, Fragmentation And Mtu ? Ans: IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. The order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily. IP datagram has fields like Version, header length, Type of service, Total length, checksum, flag, protocol, Time to live, Identification, source and destination ip address, padding, options and payload. MTU:- Maximum Transmission Unit is the size of the largest packet that a communication protocol can pass. The size can be fixed by some standard or decided at the time ofconnection Fragmentation is a process of breaking the IP packets into smaller pieces. Fragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the MTU. Each fragment becomes a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. When received by destination they are reassembled. Q.What Is Sticky Intent? Ans: Is there anyway to determine if an Intent passed into a BroadcastReceiver's onReceive is the result of a sticky Boradcast Intent, or if it was just sent. Q.User-generated Content: Report Abuse Which Is The Better Phone - The Iphone Or The Droid? Ans: The iphone 4 is better than any other phone. for one it is made out of the same material they use in helicopter and train windows.(atleas from what i haerd)another thing is that the iphone has a better app market. with over 300,000 apps it is far better than the droids 70,000. Also it comes with more accesories and has an antenna to provide better signal while the droid doesn't. People say it has a bad connection but i think not since i have already used it. And last but not leats better resolution. it may have a smaller screen but still its graphics are better.so it all depends on you each one has its ups and its downs but i would go with iphone 4 over any phone especially the "all new droid x" Q.How Long Does It Take To Build An App? Ans: Depending on the complexity and how quickly you respond to us you could have an app built in about a month. Q.How Much Does Mobile Application Development Cost? That Is A Bit Like Asking: How Much Does A Truck Cost? Ans: The answer is that it depends on the truck. Your needs are unique and your app needs to meet only those needs. A small Toyota will cost a lot less than a huge semi tractor trailer. A tractor trailer is great if you want to haul goods across the country but dont try to take it on a Saturday night date. We help you to avoid creating too much - or too little app. This keeps costs low. Having us create a custom smartphone app is surprisingly affordable. Many businesses find their app costs less than even a small radio or newspaper campaign. Unlike a radio campaign, the app?s usefulness does not end with the last commercial. Once it is created an app can add to your bottom line for a very long time. Our goal is to connect your audience with your cash register no matter where they are. With a smartphone app you give your customers access to you at the exact moment their buying decision is the strongest. Q. Describe The Apk Format. Ans: The APK file is compressed the AndroidManifest.xml file, application code (.dex files), resource files, and other files. A project is compiled into a single .apk file. Q.Is Sim Pin Code Working? Ans: It's supposed to be working, yes, but if you have ANY troubles please DISABLE SIM PIN in WinMo (SIM PIN works on the SIM, but you need WinMo UI to disable it) Q.What Is The Future Scope Of Mobile Application Developers? Ans: Future of the mobile application development is bright Q.What Is The Mobile Application Development All About? Ans: In the last two years, a lot of innovation has come in the mobile computing world. Apple has launched very innovative mobile phone, iphone and ipad along with app store. Google launched Android in Nov 2007. Blackberry released SDK and app world. Microsoft has come up with phone 7 framework. Almost every type of mobile can be programmed using J2ME. Making applications for all these devices is Mobile application development. Q.What Is The Demand Of Mobile Application Developers? Ans: Desktop based IT application is present but the mobile is future. All the applications that were madeto work only on desk top are being ported to mobile. In the coming 10 years, desktops will be replaced completely with mobile, and then all the applications will be designed mainly for mobile. The demand for mobile based trained engineers are increasing every year. Now after the launch of ipad by Apple, it will be even more. Therefore; the gextgen technology will be nothing else than mobile. The demand is expected to grow 70 folds in the coming 4 years. Q.What Is The Risk In Blocking The Main Thread When Performing A Lengthyoperation Such As Web Access Or Heavy Computation? Ans: Application_Not_Responding exception will be thrown which will crash and restart the application. Q.What Is A Dalvik ? Ans: The name of Androids virtual machine. The Dalvik VM is an interpreter-only virtual machine that executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format, a format that is optimized for efficient storage and memory-mappable execution. The virtual machine is register-based, and it can run classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into its native format using the included ?dx? tool. The VM runs on top of Posix-compliant operating systems, which it relies on for underlying functionality (such as threading and low level memory management). The Dalvik core class library is intended to provide a familiar development base for those used to programming with Java Standard Edition, but it is geared specifically to the needs of a small mobile device. Q.What Features Are In A Release? Ans: Generally, it's very difficult to detail them, unless there is a significant new feature (in which case, that will be very well advertised!). Usually it's minor speed improvements, bug fixes etc... and sometimes, new bugs are introduced (so bear that in mind) Q.When Will It Be Available In A Rom? Ans: No time soon. Folks are working on it, but you'll need a lot of patience before it (if ever) arrives. Q. I Keep Hearing 'popping/clicking' Sounds From The Speaker? Ans: This is a known annoyance on some devices, believed to be related to power management switching the speaker on and off (not confirmed), it actually seems worse in silent mode (ironically). If you experience this, you're not alone... most users do. When a fix is ready, it will be announced here. Q.How Much Revenue Share Does The Developer Get? Ans: The developer gets 70% revenue generated from each Android application purchase while the rest is used for settlement charges. Google doesn't take a dime out of this. Q.Explain Seapine Software? Ans: Seapine's software development and testing tools streamline your development process, saving you significant time and money. Enjoy feature-rich tools that are flexible enough to work in any software development environment. With Seapine integrated tools, every step in the developmentprocess feeds critical information into the next step, letting you focus on developing high quality software in less time. Q.Why Is List View Not Recommended To Have Active Components? Ans: Clicking on the active text box will pop up the software keyboard but this will resize the list, removing focus from the clicked element. Q.Why Is Open Platform Good For The Mobile Operators? Ans: An open platform would foster faster innovation, multiple software versions, better customisation options, lower costs, which would bring down the overall service and handset costs while boostingsales. Q.Describe A Real Time Scenario Where Android Can Be Used? Ans: Imagine a situation that you are in a country where no one understands the language you speak and you can not read or write. However, you have mobile phone with you. With a mobile phone with android, the Google translator translates the data of one language into another language by using XMPP to transmit data. You can type the message in English and select the language which is understood by the citizens of the country in order to reach the message to the citizens. Q.Why Is Open Platform Good For Developers? Ans: Developers will be able innovate rapidly because they will have comprehensive API access tohandset capabilities that are web-ready. They will experience increased productivity because they will have comprehensive and easy-to-use developer tools. And because open source offers a deeper understanding of the underlying mobile platform, they can better optimise their applications. Finally, the distribution and commercialisation of mobile apps will be less expensive and easier. Q.How Will You Record A Phone Call In Android? How To Get A Handle On Audiostream For A Call In Android? Ans: Permissions.PROCESS_OUTGOING_CALLS: Allows an application to monitor, modify, or abort outgoingcalls. Q.What Is An Ddms? Ans: Dalvik Debug Monitor Service, a GUI debugging application shipped with the SDK. It provides screen capture, log dump, and process examination capabilities. Q.What Are The Advantages Of Android? Ans: The following are the advantages of Android: * The customer will be benefited from wide range of mobile applications to choose, since themonopoly of wireless carriers like AT&T and Orange will be broken by Google Android. * Features like weather details, live RSS feeds, opening screen, icon on the opening screen can be customized * Innovative products like the location-aware services, location of a nearby convenience store etc., are some of the additive facilities in Android. Q.Does Android Support The Bluetooth Serial Port Profile? Ans: Yes. Q.What Is The Android G1 Phone? Ans: The Android T-Mobile G1 phone is the world's first Android-powered mobile phone developed by HTC and T-Mobile. Q.Which Is The Virtual Machine Used To Run The Android Apps? Ans: The VM used is called Dalvik, so named after the ancestral roots of its creator, as the story goes. Q.Are The Android Apps First Scrutinised By Google? Ans: No the Android applications can be directly posted on the Android Market once you are registered as a developer after paying the $25 application fee. Q.What Is An Intent Receiver? Ans: An application class that listens for messages broadcast by calling Context.broadcastIntent Q.What's The Difference Between File, Class And Activity In Android? Ans: File - It is a block of arbitrary information, or resource for storing information. It can be of any type. Class - Its a compiled form of .Java file . Android finally used this .class files to produce an executable apk. Activity - An activity is the equivalent of a Frame/Window in GUI toolkits. It is not a file or a file type it is just a class that can be extended in Android for loading UI elements on vie Q.How To Select More Than One Option From List In Android Xml File? Give An Example. Ans: Specify android id, layout height and width as depicted in the following example. Q.What Languages Does Android Support For Application Development? Ans: Android applications are written using the Java programming language. Q.What Are The Dialog Boxes That Are Supported In Android? Explain. Ans: Android supports 4 dialog boxes: AlertDialog : An alert dialog box supports 0 to 3 buttons and a list of selectable elements, including check boxes and radio buttons. Among the other dialog boxes, the most suggested dialog box is the alert dialog box. ProgressDialog: This dialog box displays a progress wheel or a progress bar. It is an extension of AlertDialog and supports adding buttons. DatePickerDialog: This dialog box is used for selecting a date by the user. TimePickerDialog: This dialog box is used for selecting time by the user. Q.What Virtual Machine Android Runs On? Ans: Dalvik virtual machine Q.What Are The Differences Between A Domain And A Workgroup? Ans: In a domain, one or more computer can be a server to manage the network. On the other hand in aworkgroup all computers are peers having no control on each other. In a domain, user doesn?t needan account to logon on a specific computer if an account is available on the domain. In a work group user needs to have an account for every computer. In a domain, Computers can be on different local networks. In a work group all computers needs to be a part of the same local network. Q.How To Remove Desktop Icons And Widgets? Ans: Press and Hold the icon or widget. The phone will vibrate and on the bottom of the phone you will see anoption to remove. While still holding the icon or widget drag it to the remove button. Once remove turns red drop the item and it is gone. Q.What Is .apk Extension? Ans: The extension for an Android package file, which typically contains all of the files related to a single Android application. The file itself is a compressed collection of an AndroidManifest.xml file,application code (.dex files), resource files, and other files. A project is compiled into a single .apk file. Q.What Is A Layout Resource? Ans: An XML file that describes the layout of an Activity screen. Q.What Is A Manifest ? Ans: An XML file associated with each Application that describes the various activies, intent filters, services, and other items that it exposes. Q.What Is A Theme ? Ans: A set of properties (text size, background color, and so on) bundled together to define various default display settings. Android provides a few standard themes, listed in R.style (starting with ?Theme_?). Q.What Is An Uris? Ans: Android uses URI strings both for requesting data (e.g., a list of contacts) and for requesting actions (e.g., opening a Web page in a browser). Both are valid URI strings, but have different values. All requests for data must start with the string ?content://?. Action strings are valid URIs that can be handled appropriately by applications on the device; for example, a URI starting with ?http://? will be handled by the browser. Q.Can An Application Be Started On Powerup? Ans: Yes. Q.What Is An Action? Ans: A description of something that an Intent sender desires. Q.What Is Activity? Ans: A single screen in an application, with supporting Java code. Q.What Is Intent? Ans: A class (Intent) describes what a caller desires to do. The caller sends this intent to Android's intent resolver, which finds the most suitable activity for the intent. Q.What Is A Resource? Ans: A user-supplied XML, bitmap, or other file, injected into the application build process, which can later be loaded from code. Q.What Is A Sticky Intent? Ans: sendStickyBroadcast() performs a sendBroadcast (Intent) that is "sticky," i.e. the Intent you are sending stays around after the broadcast is complete, so that others can quickly retrieve that data through the return value of registerReceiver (BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter). In all other ways, this behaves the same as sendBroadcast (Intent). One example of a sticky broadcast sent via the operating system is ACTION_BATTERY_CHANGED. When you call registerReceiver () for that action -- even with a null BroadcastReceiver -- you get the Intent that was last broadcast for that action. Hence, you can use this to find the state of the battery without necessarily registering for all future state changes in the battery. Q.What Is The Open Handset Alliance? Ans: The OHA is a consortium of 30 technology and mobile companies that have joined hands to accelerate innovation in mobile technology and at the same time offer the end users a better, costeffective and richer mobile experience. Q.What Innovations The Oha Members Strive To Achieve? Ans: The OHA members have endeavored to develop Android, the open source mobile platform consisting of an OS, web browser and key applications. Different companies have different contributions to make and roles to play. For instance, the software companies like Google are developing the requisite software, the hardware companies the chipsets and the mobile companies are ensuring compatible handsets for Android. Q.Why An Open Source Platform Would Be Beneficial To Consumers? Ans: Open source platform will ensure cheaper mobile handsets and services coupled with richer user experience in the form of a friendlier interface, cool applications and an enhanced browsing experience. Q.How Will Apps Change With Android 2.2? Ans: The answer is that with Froyo, Google's giving us a bunch of new ways to take advantage of apps from the Android Market and beyond. The highlights:SD card installations: you'll finally be able to install apps on your SD card, smashing the space limitations of Android versions past. You'll be able to select where you want each app to be installed - SD card or internal storage - and even toggle it back and forth with a couple of clicks later. android online trainingContinue reading
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