OpenStack Interview Questions
Q.What You Mean By Tenant And Role Regarding Openstack ? Ans: In OpenStack, the authorization level of the user is called role and the group of users is called tenant. Q. What Types Of Storage Openstack Compute Provides? Ans: OpenStack provides two classes of block storage: Volume Storage: It is persistent and not dependent on any particular instance. Volumes are created by users and within Quota Ephemeral Storage: It is associated with a single instance.They effectively disappear when a virtual machine is terminated. Q. Define Openstack? Ans: OpenStack is a set of software tools for building and managing cloud computing platforms for public and private clouds. Q. Give An Overview Of Openstack Services? Ans: OpenStack offers services like : Glance: Manages images in different formats Ceilometer: Openstack for billing Cinder: Provides persistent block storage Neutron: Enables users to create and attach interfaces to networks Nova: Provides instances on user’s demand Swift: Storage platform integrated directly into applications Heat: Allows automated infrastructure deployment Keystone: Provides authorization and authentication for users Q. What Are The Basic Functions Of Identity Service In Openstack? Ans: The basic functions of Identity Service is: Service Catalog: It provides a catalog of available services with their API endpoints User Management: It tracks the users and their permissions Q. Explain Modular Architecture Of Openstack? Ans: The three components that make modular architecture for OpenStack are: OpenStack Compute: For managing large networks of the virtual machine. Image Service: The delivery service provides discovery and registration for virtual disk images. OpenStack Object Storage: A storage system that provides support for both block storage and object storage. Q. Explain What Hypervisor Is And What Type Of Hypervisor Does Openstack Supports? Ans: In virtualization technology, hypervisor is a software program that manages multiple operating systems (or multiple instances of the same operating system) on a single computer system. The types of hypervisor that OpenStack supports are : KVM Containers Xen and HyperV VMware Q. What Is The Meaning Of Term “cinder” In Openstack Service? Ans: Cinder is used for handling persistent storage in OpenStack.The one that is utilized by default is LVM, called Cinder-Volumes. Q. What Is The Command Used For Unpause And Pause An Instance? Ans: To unpause an instance – $ nova unpause INSTANCE_NAME To pause an instance – $ nova pause INSTANCE_NAME Q. Explain How You Can Transfer Volume From One Owner To Another In Openstack? Ans: You can transfer a volume from one owner to another by using the command cinder transfer*. Q. What Are The Main Components Of Identity User Management? Ans: Users: It is a digital representation of a person, service or system who uses OpenStack cloud services Roles: A role includes a set of rights and privileges. A role determines what operations a user is permitted to perform in a given tenant Tenants: A container used to group or isolate resource or identity objects. Depending on service operator a tenant may map to a customer, account, organization or project. Q. Mention What Is The Command To Remove Network Interface From Bare-metal Node? Ans: To remove network interface from bare-metal node command used is bare-metal – interface remove. Q. Explain What Is The Function Of Cinder Scheduler? Ans: Cinder Scheduler or routing volume create requests to the appropriate volume service Q. List Out The Storage Locations For Vm Images In Openstack? Ans: OpenStack Object Storage : Filesystem S3 HTTP RBD or Rados Block Device GridFS Q. Explain About Openstack Python Sdk? Ans: For writing python scripts and managing in Openstack cloud, SDK (Software Development Kit) is used. The SDK implements Python binding to the OpenStack API, which enables you to achieve automation tasks in Python by making calls on Python objects instead of making REST calls directly. Q. Explain What Is Token In Openstack? Ans: Token is an alpha-numeric string which allows access to a certain set of services depending upon the access level of the user Q. Explain What Is Cells In Openstack? Ans: Cells functionality enables you to scale an OpenStack Compute cloud in a more simplistic way. When this functionality is enabled, the hosts in an OpenStack Compute cloud are partitioned into group called cells. Cells are configured as trees. Q. For Networking, What Hardware Is Used In Openstack? Ans: In OpenStack, networking is done in the following ways : Ports Vendor Plugins Networks Routers Subnets Q. Mention What Are The Networking Options Used In OpenStack? Ans: The networking options used in OpenStack are: VLAN Network Manager: Compute creates a VLAN and bridge; DHCP server is started for each VLAN to pass out IP addresses to VM instances. Flat DHCP Network Manager: IP addresses for VM instances are fetched from the subnet specified by the network administrator Flat Network Manager: IP addresses for VM instances are fetched from the subnet, and then injected into the image on launch Q. What Is The Command To Manage Floating Ip Addresses In OpenStack? Ans: Nova floating-ip-* Q. What Is The Meaning Of Term “flavor” In OpenStack? Ans: A flavor is an available hardware configuration for a server, which defines the size of a virtual server that can be launched. Q. What Is Bare-metal Node And What Does It Comprised Of? Ans: It gives access to control bare metal driver, through which user can control physical hardware resources on the same network. Bare metal node is comprised of two separate components Bare metal node Operating System: It is a base software, which runs on each node in the cluster. Bare metal node Orchestrator: It’s a management software, which acts as a dispatcher to all nodes in the cluster. Q. What Is The Command Used To List Ip Address Information? Ans: $ nova floating-ip-pool-list Q. What Are Functions Of “nova” ? Ans: Instance life cycle management Management of compute resources Networking and Authorization REST-based API Asynchronous eventually consistent communication Hypervisor agnostic : support for Xen, XenServer/XCP, KVM, UML, VMware vSphere and Hyper-V Q. What Are Components Of Openstack Compute ? Ans: Nova Cloud Fabric is composed of the following major components: API Server (nova-api) Message Queue (rabbit-mq server) Compute Workers (nova-compute) Network Controller (nova-network) Volume Worker (nova-volume) Scheduler (nova-scheduler) Q. What Is Job Of Api-server ? Ans: The API Server provides an interface for the outside world to interact with the cloud infrastructure. Q. What Is Rabbit Mq Server ? Ans: OpenStack communicates among themselves using the message queue via AMQP. Q. What Are Functions And Features Of Swift ? Ans: Storage of large sized objects Storage of large number of objects Data Redundancy Archival capabilities – Work with large datasets Data container for virtual machines and cloud apps Media Streaming capabilities Secure storage of objects Extreme scalability Backup and archival Q. What Do You Understand By Horizon ? Ans: Horizon the web based dashboard can be used to manage /administer OpenStack services. Q. What Are Commands To Generate Keypairs ? Ans: ssh-keygen cd .ssh nova keypair-add –pub_key id_rsa.pub mykey Q. How You Can View The Rules ? Ans: Rules can be viewed with the command: $ nova secgroup-list-rules myservers Q. Give An Example Where Logs Help In Openstack Security ? Ans: For instance, analyzing the access logs of Identity service or its replacement authentication system would alert us to failed logins, frequency, origin IP, whether the events are restricted to select accounts and other pertinent information. Log analysis supports detection. Q. Why Compliance Is Required In Openstack ? Ans: Compliance means adhering to regulations, specifications, standards and laws. An OpenStack deployment may require compliance activities for many purposes, such as regulatory and legal requirements, customer need, privacy considerations, and security best practices. The Compliance function is important for the business and its customers. Q. What Are Data Privacy Concerns In Openstack, How Those Can Be Remediated? Ans: Data residency: Concerns over who owns data in the cloud and whether the cloud operator can be ultimately trusted as a custodian of this data have been significant issues in the past. Data disposal:– Best practices suggest that the operator sanitize cloud system media (digital and non-digital) prior to disposal, release out of organization control or release for reuse. Data not securely erased:- This may be remediated with database and/or system configuration for auto vacuuming and periodic free-space wiping. Instance memory scrubbing, Cinder volume data, Image service delay delete feature. Q. What Is Sanitization Process ? Ans: The sanitization process removes information from the media such that the information cannot be retrieved or reconstructed. Sanitization techniques, including clearing, purging, cryptographic erase, and destruction, prevent the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals when such media is reused or released for disposal. Q. How To Create A Normal User In Openstack ? Ans: sudo nova-manage user create user-name Q. How You Assign A Project To A User ? Ans: sudo nova-manage project add –project=project_name –user=user_name Q. How You Can Remove A Rule From Security Group ? Ans: nova secgroup-delete-rule webserver tcp 443 443 0.0.0.0/0 Q. How To Display Images Using Nova Client ? Answer : nova image-list Q. How To See A List Of Roles And The Associated Ids In Our Environment ? Ans: keystone role-list Q. What Is Job Of User Crud ? Ans: The user CRUD filter enables users to use a HTTP PATCH to change their own password. Q. Where Caching Configuration Is Stored ? Ans: The majority of the caching configuration options are set in the section of the keystone.conf file. Q. What Is Alarm In Openstack ? Ans: Alarms provide user-oriented Monitoring-as-a-Service for resources running on OpenStack. This type of monitoring ensures you can automatically scale in or out a group of instances through the Orchestration module, but you can also use alarms for general-purpose awareness of your cloud resources’ health. Q. How To Migrate Running Instances From One Openstack Compute Server To Another Openstack Compute Server ? Ans: Check the ID of the instance to be migrated Check the information associated with the instance Select the compute node the instance will be migrated to. Check that Host has enough resources for migration Migrate the instance using the $ nova live-migration SERVER HOST_NAME command. Q. How You Can Change Behavior Of Dhcp Server ? Ans: The behavior of dnsmasq can be customized by creating a dnsmasq configuration file Q. What Is Orchestration ? Ans: Orchestration is an orchestration engine that provides the possibility to launch multiple composite cloud applications based on templates in the form of text files that can be treated like code. Q. What Is Use Of Account Reaper ? Ans: In the background, the account reaper removes data from the deleted accounts. Q. What You Will Do In Case Of Drive Failure ? Ans: In the event that a drive has failed, the first step is to make sure the drive is unmounted. This will make it easier for Object Storage to work around the failure until it has been resolved. If the drive is going to be replaced immediately, then it is just best to replace the drive, format it, remount it, and let replication fill it up. Q. What You Will Do In Case Of Server Failure ? Ans: If a server is having hardware issues, it is a good idea to make sure the Object Storage services are not running. This will allow Object Storage to work around the failure while you troubleshoot. If the server just needs a reboot, or a small amount of work that should only last a couple of hours, then it is probably best to let Object Storage work around the failure and get the machine fixed and back online. When the machine comes back online, replication will make sure that anything that is missing during the downtime will get updated. If you cannot replace the drive immediately, then it is best to leave it unmounted, and remove the drive from the ring. This will allow all the replicas that were on that drive to be replicated elsewhere until the drive is replaced. Once the drive is replaced, it can be re-added to the ring. Q. How You Will Install Dhcp Agent ? Ans: # apt-get install neutron-dhcp-agent Q. Who Is Openstack For? Ans: OpenStack is for service providers, enterprises, government agencies and academic institutions that want to build public or private clouds. Industries range from IT & telco to SaaS and eCommerce to finance and healthcare. You can read more about how organizations are becoming agile, reducing costs and avoiding vendor lock-in with OpenStack. Q. What Does It Mean For The Cloud Ecosystem? Ans: Wide adoption of an open-source, open-standards cloud should be huge for everyone. It means customers won’t have to fear lock-in and technology companies can participate in a growing market that spans cloud providers. Companies are already using OpenStack to provide public clouds, support, training and system integration services and hardware and software products. A great analogy comes from the early days of the Internet: the transition away from fractured, proprietary flavors of UNIX toward open-source Linux. An open cloud stands to provide the same benefits for large-scale cloud computing that the Linux standard provided inside the server. Q. Mention What Are The Three Components That Make Modular Architecture Of Openstack? Ans: The three components that make modular architecture for OpenStack are: OpenStack Compute: For managing large networks of the virtual machine OpenStack Object Storage: A storage system that provides support for both block storage and object storage Image Service: The delivery service provides discovery and registration for virtual disk images Q. What Is Identity Service In Openstack? Ans: Keystone is the most important and preferred Identity Service in OpenStack and executes the complete OpenStack Identity API. Q. How Can You Create A Token? Ans: Users first need to authenticate their Keystone credentials to create a token. Contact for more on OpenStack Online Training
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What is Application Packaging?
During 1990, application profiling team members used to write scripts to wrap the applications into packages. Its good to write these scripts if it is small. But in the case of large files, it becomes more and more complex. Moreover, there might be some dependencies like platforms, pre-required software to execute those scripts. So while installing any kind of software, you need to take care of all these factors. Hence to get rid of all these factors, the operation team uses the application packaging. So, What is Application packaging? Application packaging is the way for enterprises and large organizations to standardize and streamline the way of software on user devices. This process involves creating an application package for each piece of software that the business requires with the predefined system and user setting that is suitable for the specific standards and the control set within the organization. This allows the IT administrators to deliver the latest version of the software with new features as well as the security updated in a consistent and timely manner to gain a competitive advantage. Besides it also reduces the total management cost. Here the IT team does not have to troubleshoot the individual devices but can package, test, and troubleshoot on a global level. This application packaging is the core component of the company’s software management strategy. This involves binding the set of files, registry as well as components to create a customized software installation targeted for automated deployment. A package usually includes the additional setting and the scripts for the software to install on many devices in a single click without any interaction from the user. This package can be remotely installed with the help of deployment management systems such as SCCM, Intune, DMS Console, etc. What are the stages of application packaging? Every process here has a few stages as follows: In the initial stage, the request to start the process of packaging is raised. The technical evaluation of a particular source is done. In this stage, packaging involves the process of capture, editing, and testing. In this stage, the package quality is taken into consideration and a full proof test is done In the final stage, the user acceptance test (or) UAT is the last stage of this process. What type of packaging formats exists? There are many types of packing formats that exist. Some of them are MSI, MSIX, appv, cloud house, thin app. Get practical knowledge on creating different packages by a real-time industry professional at Application packaging Online Training. a)Microsoft Installer and MSI : When Microsoft installer was launched in 1999, it provides the framework for the installation process. Here the installers could recognize each other and have a database of installed products and will introduce a consistency that had not existed before. Using an MSI File, you can install both .exe and the registry keys, specify the file locations, create custom actions that were not part of the standard install, etc. This MSI’s delivers greater control, efficiency, and the speed to process and deploy the packaging apps. Through all the version of windows since windows 2000, enterprises have been creating the MSI’s for their application needs and deploy them in the same way for the past 20 years. Before creating the application package, the new application package, needs to be tested on each version of Windows that you are running and other apps as well to check the conflicts. If any issues were found during the testing then it needs to be fixed. Once this is done, it needs to be repackaged and redeployed again. If any of the testing/ packaging/ deploying takes a long time, then it's better to take another alternative. b)Virtualization changes the Application packaging: SoftGrid has changed the legacy set of issues and created the rise of application virtualization. The operation team realized that the use of COM isolation and the virtual file system is capable of preventing problems such as DLL and Conflict hell. This allowed applications to run in parallel on the same desktop without any issues by reducing risk and uncertainty. In 2006, Microsoft acquired a soft grid that gives instant access to the best application virtualization technology on the market as well as the large userbase. Microsoft has updated many of its updated features and introduced its security standards before rebranding it. How to package an application? Application packaging is a time-consuming process for every company. This complex task requires conformity with application versions, installation prerequisites, tools as well as the post configuration actions. The standard application package delivery format is a zip archive with the following folder structure: a)Package documentation (packing instructions, discovery documentation, etc) b)Package delivery folder (i.e the set of file need for deployment MSI, Wrapper, MST, CAB, etc ) What are the benefits of application packaging? Application packaging has many benefits. Some of them were: No installed required. Thus no more conflict between the application and OS. It supports multiple runtime environments based on the application requirement. It is capable of supporting multiple version concurrently It lowers the cost of migrations and upgrades. It accelerates application deployment through on-demand application streaming. It helps in application customization to suit the user's needs. It saves a lot of time in installation as well as the uninstallation process. Once the application has packed, the application can also be installed quickly on several laptops in different locations Likewise, there are benefits of application packaging when you pack the application in real-time. By reaching the end of this blog, I hope you people have gained some knowledge of Application packaging. You people can acquire more real-time knowledge of application packaging from the roots at Application packaging online training. In the upcoming post of this blog, I'll be sharing the details of the working of each application package in real-time.Continue reading
What is Business Analysis?
Analysis plays a major role for successful running of the business. The result of the analysis lets you know the further steps to be taken for the smooth running of the firm. This analysis is essential for both small as well as large scale firms. Moreover, the steps after the analysis are the deciding factor for the rise (or) fall of the business. So the analysis should be done with at most care for the exponential growth of the business. Moreover, Do you know “what things were necessary during business analysis”? Read the complete article to get the answer Business analysis is defined as a practice that is responsible for enabling change in an organization. It does so by defining the firm needs and recommending solutions that deliver value to the stakeholders. Even though the definition is static, the set of techniques and practices may vary from firm to firm. Moreover, in some cases, they may vary from one project to the other with in the organization. In the IT industry, the solutions may include a system development component, which may consist of process improvement (or) the organizational change. It was performed to understand the current state of the organization (or) to serve as a basis for the identification of the business needs. In the majority of the cases, it was done to define and validate the solutions that meet the business needs, goals (or) objectives. Are you looking for the practical exposure of business analysis?then get it from business analysis online training Why does the organization require business analysis? Organization requires business analysis for the following reasons: To understand the organizational structure and dynamics in which a system needs to be deployed. To understand the issue in the organizations and to identify the improvement potentials In ensuring that the customer, end-user, as well as the developer, do share the common problem Business analysis usually involves various phases as below: In the initial stage of the project, when the requirements were interpreted by the solutions as well as the design teams, the business analyst is responsible to review the solutions documents. Business Analyst work closely with the solution designers as well as the Project Managers to ensure that the requirements are clear. In a large firm, you can find the business analyst as the key person who has a link to both the teams. Besides, he would interact with business users ( technical as well as non-technical) and the stakeholders with the projects to get approval and finally node before proceeding with the project. Steps in Business Analysis Process: Business Analysis involves multiple steps. They were as follows: a)Enterprise Analysis: This phase area covers the collection of pre-project activities that leads up to the project section guided by the business analyst. These activities have the following advantages. They are: Helps to maintain the business architecture. Allows you to prepare the business use case Preparing for the decision package b)Requirement planning and management: In this phase, you are responsible to define the task and resources, that are associates with the planning and management of requirements. This helps you to ensure that set of activities that are undertaken is appropriate according to the specific project. Moreover, this phase is important to capture the changes correctly as well as consistently. c)Requirement Elicitation: This phase consists of researching and discovering the system requirements from users, customers, and other stakeholders. d)Requirements analysis and documentation: This phase is a collection of activities for expressing the output of the system analysis. Moreover, this phase also requires every requirement that needs to be packaged, evaluated, and approved before the solution is implemented e)Requirements Communications: This phase is a collection of activities for expressing the output of the requirement analysis. In this phase, every requirement needs to be packaged, evaluated, and approved before the solution is approved. f)Solution Evaluation and validation: This phase should ensure that solution able to meet the stakeholder objectives. Business analysis techniques: There are many techniques available in the market to perform business analysis. The most commonly used business analysis techniques are: MOST – It is the short form for mission, objectives, and strategies.’ PESTLE- It stands for Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, legal and environmental SWOT – It is the full form of Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats. Moscow- It is the short form of Must (or) Should, Could (or) Would. CATWOE – It is an acronym for customer, actors, transformation process, World View, Owner and Environmental The 5Whys- It is the backbone of both six sigma as well as business analysis techniques. Six Thinking Hats: This process helps you to consider an alternative perspective and ideas. This technique is further classified as follows: a)Green (Creative thinking) b)Blue(Represents the big picture overview) c)White(logical and data-driven thinking) d)yellow(Positive thinking, mainly focuses on pros) e)Red(Emotion-based reactions) f)Black(Opposite thinking, mainly focuses on cons) Who is a Business Analyst? A business analyst is someone who analyzes and organizes the business domain. This includes business documents, processes, systems (or) assessing the business model (or) its integration w.r.t to the technology. The designation might differ from person to person such as analyst, business analyst, system analyst (or) system analyst and also from organization to organizations What is the role of the business analyst? The role of the business analysis varies from defining and scoping the business areas of the organizations. The person then extracts, analyze, and document the requirements. communicating these requirements to the appropriate stakeholders, identifying the right solution, and then validating the solution to find if the requirements meet the expected standards. Moreover, in most of the companies these are the major responsibilities of the business analyst. However, these responsibilities vary from company to company depending upon the requirement. By reaching the end of the article, I hope you people have got enough ideas regarding the business analysis, various techniques, and also the responsibilities of the business analyst in the IT World. Moreover, you people can practical exposure of these use cases by live industry experts at Business Analysis Online Course. In the upcoming articles of this blog, I'll be sharing the details of various business analysis examples using different business analysis techniques that were in use in the IT industry. Meanwhile, you people can check out our Business analyst interview questions and get placed in your dream firm.Continue reading
What is IoT?
The way of people living in the 21st century has brought drastic change due to the high availability of the internet around us. There are multiple examples around us to explain how the internet has brought changes in our daily life. This article on IoT gives you detail information on how it has changed the people lifestyle and its application in today's world. We people have been probably hearing that IoT has brought the drastic change from operation to management and in some cases jobs automation in all industries. How this platform has brought this drastic change? What made this change? Do you wanna know all these? Read the following carefully to get answers for all these Before knowing to know what exactly it is, let us initially have a look at the evolution Evolution of IoT: The evaluation of Internet of Things platforms can be explained below: Pre-internet: In the pre-internet, most of the human to human communication was through a fixed and mobile telephony. Dawn of Internet: The world was changed unexpectedly with the origin of the internet. We people can able to get the desired information within a button click. What is IoT? The Internet of Things(IoT) is a network of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines. These devices contains unique identifiers that transfer the data over the network. It does the work without the human-human interaction (or) human-machine interaction. In other words, it is also defined as a connection on the (or) device and can connect WIFI. This platform has its presence in many places in our daily life. Through this platform, we people can connect kitchen appliances, cars, thermostats, to the embedded devices via the internet. Through low-cost computing, cloud, big data, analytics, and mobile technologies physical things can share and collect the data with minimal human intervention. Moreover, digital systems were capable of record, monitor, and adjust each interaction between the connected things. Do you wanna know more about this platform? Get it at IoT Online Training from live experts Till now, we people have got basic information on the Internet of Things, let us have a look at its architecture IoT Architecture: IoT is not just internet-connected consumer devices. It is a technology that builds systems capable of sensing and respond to stimuli from the real world without human intervention. So we need to develop a process flow for a definite framework over which IoT solution is built. The platform architecture generally comprises of 4 stages: Stage-1 (sensors/actuators): A thing in the context of the Internet of Things should be equipped with sensors and actuators and thus gives the ability to emit, accept, and process signals. Stage-2 (Data Acquisition System): The data from the sensors start in an analogue form that needs to be aggregated and converted into digital streams for further processing, Here the data acquisition systems perform these aggregations, and the conversation functions Stage-3(Edge Analytics): Once the Internet of Things data has digitized and aggregated, it may require further processing before it enters the data center. Here the place, where the edge analytics comes into the picture. Stage-4(Cloud Analytics): Data that needs more in-depth processing gets forwarded to physical data centers (or) the cloud-based systems How does IOT work? The ecosystem of the Internet of things(IoT) comprises the internet-enabled smart devices like sensors, communication hardware (or) processors to gather, send, and act on the data acquired from the different environments. The data connected by the IoT devices is shared by connecting to other edge devices (or) an IoT gateway. Here the collected data can be analyzed locally (or) sent to the cloud for analysis purposes. Besides IoT devices were capable of communicating with other related devices and act as data exchange with another. Here the devices do their job without human intervention. Moreover, people who own the devices can interact with the devices for setting up and give instructions to access the data. Examples of IoT: a)A “thing” on the Internet of Things (IoT) can be a car with in-built sensors to alert the driver about the low pressure on tires b)Intelligent Sensors, UID, and transponders that can be accommodated in machines such as coffee machines, cell phones, and home appliances like lamps, washing machines, wearable devices. Likewise, there are multiple examples of the Internet of Things, let us discuss some with the application of this platform. Applications of IoT: a)Disaster Management : IoT can be used o accumulate the data related to the specific location using remote monitoring tools and platform analytics. Moreover, with the application of the Internet of Things, we can also get the early warning of the disaster. b)Health Care: IoT may have a major impact when it comes to remote health monitoring. Using this platform, we can send the patient vitals to the doctor. c)Farming: With IoT, we can automate the task of irrigation. Besides a set of sensors such as light, humidity, the temperature can be used to monitor the field conditions d)Smart Energy Management: With Smart grids, energy distribution can be easily optimized. These grids also keep collecting the real-time data by distributing the electricity efficiently and also reduce the outages e)Pollution Control : The IoT platform helps us to continuously monitor the air quality as well as the water quality. Here the data will be sent to the cloud for further analysis. Using the analytics report we can take the proper action for pollution control. f) Manufacturing: Manufacturers can gain a competitive advantage by using the production line monitoring to enable the proactive maintenance of equipment when the sensors predict the upcoming failure. Besides the devices were capable of measuring the production output is compromised. Moreover, with sensor alerts, manufacturers can quickly check equipment for accuracy (or) remove it from the production until it is repaired. Hence through IoT, companies can reduce the operating costs, get better uptime, and thus improve asset performance management. Hence likewise, there is much application of the Internet of Things that we were habituated to use in our daily life. You people can get more examples of the Internet of Things and its applications by live industry experts at the IoT Online Course. Final Words: I hope you people have gained enough stuff regarding the need and utilization of IoT in industry. In the upcoming posts of this blog, I'll be sharing the details of the application of each area with real-time use cases. Meanwhile, have a look at our IoT Interview Questions and get placed in a reputed firm.Continue reading
What is ServiceNow?
The Cloud computing platform has become a buzzword in the IT industry over the past decade. There is nothing auspicious that 70% of the IT companies today run on the cloud computing platform. There are are many vendors like google, amazon in providing the top cloud services to the people. In the previous articles of this blog, I have shared with you the details of Amazon Web Services (AWS). Today in this article, ill be sharing with you the details of ServiceNow. Read the complete article to get the details of this cloud management. Before know about this cloud management, let us have an initial look at its definition ServiceNow is a cloud computing ticketing tools that process the user request and catalogs the customer request. How ServiceNow Came into existence? Once upon the time, there was a situation, where the enterprises were struggling with emails and spreadsheets to communicated and solve the IT issues. Then ServiceNow came into existence with the capability to service and redirect the issues within the team by providing an efficient system than emails as well as spreadsheets. What is ServiceNow? It is a cloud-based automation platform that enables enterprise organizations to improve operational efficiency by streamlining and automating routine work tasks. Here in this tool, the user can raise a request that deals with the incidents, changes, problems, and other services. This ticketing tool suits best in various areas like IT, Security, Hr Service Delivery, Customer Service Desk, and the business applications This Cloud-based platform works based on ITIL guidelines. Today Moreover.this tool focus on service orientation towards the tasks, activities, and processes. Besides, this cloud platform uses machine learning to improve the data and workflows that help the modern enterprise becomes faster and more scalable. It offers flexibility.power and dependability to achieve goals of the incident and problem management. Besides, it allows users to select the most comfortable user interface. And also, these tools provide the information to the technician to diagnose as well as repair the issues This cloud computing platform has created its roots in ITSM since 2012. Today it has created a niche as a cross-departmental platform that functions as an enterprise cloud solution that is built on the top of all the other applications. And its ability to create workflows that automate the process of data extraction makes its unique offerings in today's cloud space. Today, ServiceNow has become an integrated cloud solution that combines all these services in a single system of record. Today this full-fledged enterprise service management (ESM) platform is capable of providing the unique ability to provide the single window of visibility across all of them. Moreover, ServiceNow offers an app store that offers a suite of certified third-party tools to makes its products more and more accessible. Do you want to get practical exposure on this ticketing tool? then visit ServiceNow Online Training What are the ServiceNow products? ServiceNow platform has several different products. Some of them were: Information Technology Service Management(ITSM): Information Technology Service Management is a set of workflows and tools for optimally developing, delivering, and managing IT services. It is used to handle the incidents, service requests, problems as well as the changes. Information Technology Business Management(ITBM): ITBM is a set of workflows and tools for optimally developing, delivering, and managing the business services through an IT-focused lens. The goal of ITBM is to help organizations more comprehensively understood how their technology relates to the business goals, strategies as well as needs. ITBM comprises of project portfolio management/ strategic portfolio management, Resource as well as demand management, Risk management, change management, application portfolio management, operations, and finance management Customer Service Management: Customer Service Management (CSM ) is a set of workflows and tools for optimally overseeing and tracking all interactions with business customers. The goal of CSM is to comprehensively manage the customer experience (CX), regardless of the engagement channel (or) interaction type. In some cases, CSM is also known as Customer Experience Management. This CSM focuses on automating the common task to make the customer experience feel effortless as well as seamless. It connects the departments, workflows, and systems to proactively resolve the issues before the customer contact Information Technology Asset Management(ITAM): Information Technology Asset Management is a set of business practices and tools for optimally supporting the lifecycle management of IT assets and strategic planning for the IT environment. The goal of ITAM is to help the organization in managing the hardware and the software inventory more effectively and avoid unnecessary asset purchases. This ITAM comprises of Asset provisioning, inventory management, Contract management, Change management, Asset audit management Software Asset Management: Software Asset Management(SAM) is a set of business practices and strategies for optimally managing the acquisition, usage, and lifecycle maintenance of the software across the organization. It enables the organizations to create an accurate system of record for all the software assets in real-time. The goal of SAM is to optimize the license usage, eliminate the duplication of software licenses, reduce the software related expenses Human Resource Service Delivery: Human Resource Service Delivery is the best practice for automating and standardizing HR processes within your organization. Through HR Service Delivery, organizations can able to provide the engaging holistic HR Services to employees. Particularly HR Service Delivery eliminates many of the repetitive task performed by HR teams, to focus on a high-value task What are the ServiceNow Applications? ServiceNow offers a wide range of application products where the design is according to the specific user needs. This includes: IT service automation Application: ServiceNow offers visibility into end-end business services by understanding the relationships with the underlying IT resources. It also helps to enhance availability by knowing the service health and reduces the event loss time by quickly finding the disruptions in the systems. This encompasses a wide range of IT Services. Some of the common examples are service desk support, asset provisioning, and management, Device Life Cycle management, identity management and so on IT Business Management Applications: ITBM is a portfolio planning and execution tool. It helps you to focus on the area which needs the highest attention as well as accelerate time to value. Customer Service Management: This tool allows you to connect the customer services with other departments to identify as well as resolve the issues. It significantly reduces the cost and increases customer satisfaction. This tool also helps you to increase customer satisfaction, boost efficiency as well as improve productivity. HR Management: This tool helps you to improve employee satisfaction. Besides, it is a single access point for efficient as well as the personalized HR Services. This also helps you to improve HR productivity, streamline employee transactions and optimize service delivery Enterprise Security Response Engine: It is a performance analysis tool that allows you to connect with your existing security tools. This tool helps you to quickly respond to the incidents as well as vulnerabilities. It does this according to the potential impact on your business. This tool helps you to improve the speed and efficiency of your security response. Moreover, this tool also helps you to reduce the time spent on basic tasks. Hence likewise, many ServiceNow applications were trending in the market. You people can acquire the practical exposure of all these services by real-time experts with live use cases at ServiceNow Online Course. I hope you people have got enough idea regarding the usage of ServiceNow and its applications in the IT industry. In my next articles of the blog, ill be sharing the details of various ServiceNow products individually.Continue reading
BlockChain Interview Questions
Q.What Do You Mean By Blocks In The Blockchain Technology? Ans: Blockchain consists of information of all the financial transactions. A block is nothing but just a list of records. When these lists are combined with each other, they are known as blockchain. For example- an organization has 100 ledger books the combination of which is known as Blockchain and a single ledger would be considered as a block. Q.Why Blockchain Is A Trusted Approach? Ans: Blockchain can be trusted due to so many reasons. The very first one is its compatibility with other business applications due to its open-source nature. Second is its security. As it was meant for online transactions, the developers have paid special attention in keeping up the pace when it comes to its security. It really doesn’t matter what type of business one owns, Blockchain can easily be considered. Q. Is It Possible In Blockchain To Remove One Or More Block From The Networks? Ans: Yes, it can be done. There are times when only a specific portion of this online ledger is to be considered. With the help of default options and filters, this can easily be done without making a lot of efforts. Q.What Do You Know About Blockchain? Ans: Well, it’s a technology which was actually designed for the Bitcoin and later it got a lot of publicity due diverse array of benefits it brings when it comes to monitoring and recording all the financial transactions that are made on a network. It’s a trusted approach and there are a lot of organizations in the present scenario which are using it. As everything is secure, and because it’s an open source approach, it can easily be trusted for the long run. Q.How Does A Block Is Recognized In The Blockchain Approach? Ans: Every block in this online ledger basically consists of a hash pointer which acts as a link to the block which is prior to it, transaction data and in fact a stamp of time. Q.What Exactly Do You Know About The Security Of A Block? Ans: Well, a block cannot be modified by all the users on a network. Therefore it offers an excellent level of security. In addition to this, every block is secured using cryptography that is another vote in this matter. Thus one needs not to worry about the safety as well as the security of data that is present in a block. Q. Are There Any Network Specific Conditions For Using Blockchain Technology In An Organization? Ans: There is no specific condition on using it. However, the network must be a peer-to-peer network under the concerned protocols. It actually validates the new block simply and helps organizations to keep up the pace in this matter without investing in third-party applications. Q.What Is Encryption? What Is Its Role In Blockchain? Ans: Data security always matters. Encryption is basically an approach that helps organizations to keep their data secure. In this technique, the data is encoded or changed up to some extent before it is sent out of a network by the sender. The only receiver can understand how to decode the same. In Blockchain, this approach is useful because it simply adds more to the overall security and authenticity of blocks and help to keep them secure. Q. Is It Possible To Modify The Data Once It Is Written In A Block? Ans: No, it is not possible to do so. In case any modification is required, the organization simply has to erase the information from all other blocks too. It is because of no other reason than this, data must be given the extreme care of while using this approach. Q.What Type Of Records Can Be Kept In Blockchain? Is There Any Restriction On Same? Ans: There is no restriction of keeping records of any type in the Blockchain approach. Presently, a lot of organizations all over the world are using this approach and the fact is records of medical transactions, events related to organizations, management activities, transaction processing, identity management, as well as documentation are the common type of records that can be kept on them. It must be noted that the record keeping is not just limited to these applications only. Q.What Is Double Spending? Ans: It is one of the major problems that are associated with the digital cash. In fact, it’s a condition when one digital token is spent multiple times because the token generally consists of a digital file that can easily be cloned. It simply leads to inflation and organizations has to bear a huge loss. One of the primary aims of Blockchain technology is to eliminate this approach up to the possible extent. Q.Explain The Significance Of Blind Signature And How It Is Useful? Ans: It is actually a form of digital signature and in fact an important part of the cryptography in which all the information is made blind before it is actually considered or signed. This is verified approach and is generally considered in the privacy-related protocols where both the author and the signing parties are different. One of the most common examples is digital cash scheme. Q.What Is Secret Sharing? Does It Have Any Benefit In Blockchain Technology? Ans: It is a well-known fact that security matters a lot in digital transactions. Secret sharing is an approach meant for same. In Blockchain technology it is an approach that divides secret or personal information into different units and sent them to the users on the network. The original information can only be combined when a participant to whom a share of the secret is allocated agree to combine them together with others. There are several security-related benefits it can offer in Blockchain technology. Q.What Exactly Do You Know About Executive Accounting? Does Blockchain Support The Same? Ans: Executive accounting is nothing but a special type of accounting which is designed exclusively for a business that offers services to the people. There is no strict upper limit on services and a business can manage any through the executive accounting. Blockchain has algorithms that are specially meant to handle executive accounting. In fact, it cut down many problems that are associated with the same. Q.What Are The Benefits Of Blockchain That You Know? Ans: It encourages secure online transactions which is one of its biggest benefits. Basically, being a distributed and decentralized ledger that keeps a close eye on all the transaction records, it doesn’t let the record to be altered by anyone. This enhances the security. In addition to this, participants and the business owners can always make sure of los cost auditing at the end. One thing that can always be assured with blockchain is every block or unit can be transferred only once which simply eliminates the double spending problem. Q.Name The Two Types Of Records That Are Present In The Blockchain Database? Ans: These records are block records and transactional records. Both these records can easily be accessed and the best thing is it is possible to integrate them each other without following the complex algorithms. Q.What Are The Threads To The Information You Are Familiar With? Ans: There are lots of threats to information in the present scenario. Due to increase in online transactions over the internet, many hackers have become active and are adopting new approaches to hack information and servers that contain financial information. The major threat is software attack, identity theft, information extortion, as well as sabotage. In addition to this, Trojan horses, worms, and viruses are other trouble creators. Q. What Challenges Information Leak Can Impose Of An Organization? Ans: Information leak can cut down the reputation of an organization up to an excellent extent. In addition to this, it can be the reason of organization bearing huge losses. Many organizations who fail to implement security protocols to keep their data secure have already lost the trust of their customers and are struggling very hard to get the same reputation again. The overall profits of any organization can reduce up to 80% if no attention is paid to the online transaction security. Q.Name Organizations That Can Use Blockchain Technology? Ans: There is no strict upper limit on the category of business who can consider this approach. The fact is almost all the businesses are engaged in online or financial transactions that they need to make to run the processes smoothly. Large scale corporations, financial institutions, private businesses, government departments and even defense organizations can trust this technology very easily. Q.What Is Information Processing According To You? What Are The Key Challenges That Are Associated With It? Ans: The information is often shared on a network. Before actually transmitting it over a network, it needs to be changed into formats that can fit the standards of the channels (channel is a link between sender and a receiver). The work done to convert the information at both sender and receiver end is generally regarded as information processing. The biggest challenge to information processing is securing it during that time. Another challenge is processing bulk information can impose a limit on performance. Q.What Does Bip Stands For? Ans: It means Bitcoin improvement proposal. Q.What Are The Key Principles In Blockchain That Are Helpful In Eliminating The Security Threats That Needs To Be Followed? Ans: Yes, there are a few principles that need to be followed with respect to time. They are: Auditing Securing applications Securing testing and similar approaches Database security Continuity planning Digital workforce training All these principles are basic and are easy to implement. They are helpful in making the transactions records useful. Q.What Is The Principle On Which Blockchain Technology Is Based On? Ans: It enables the information to be distributed among the users without being copied. Q.Is Blockchain An Incorruptible Ledger? Answer : As per the developer’s claim, the blockchain ledger cannot be corrupted. Q.What Is A Security Policy? Ans: A security policy defines what exactly needs to be secured on a system. It bounds a network user under some core protocols that they all must agree and follow to enhance the overall security. When it comes to information or financial records of an organization, multiple security policies are implemented than just one. Q. How You Will Handle The Risk Management When It Comes To Securing The Transactions Records? Ans: It is basically a process of finding the threats and all the vulnerabilities to the financial records of an organization. The best thing that can be done against this approach is to take the right counter measures against them immediately. Another approach is to pay attention to a back-up plan. Based on the value of information, more approaches such as buying new risk management software can simply be considered. The prime risk to information is from black-hat hackers. Q.Name The Common Type Of Ledgers That Can Be Considered By Users In Blockchain? Ans: These are: Centralized Ledgers Decentralized Ledgers Distributed Ledgers Q.How A Blockchain Ledger Is Different From An Ordinary One? Ans: The first and in fact the prime difference is Blockchain is a digital ledger that can be decentralized very easily. The chances of error in this approach are far less than that in an ordinary ledger. An ordinary ledger is what that is prepared with hands or by human efforts while the Blockchain performs all its tasks automatically. You just need to configure it in a proper manner and by following all the guidelines. Q. A Distributed Digital Ledger Is Used For Recording Transaction In Blockchain. What Does The System Rely On? Ans: It rely on the network nodes. Contact for more on Blockchain Online TrainingContinue reading
Business Analyst Interview Questions
Q. How do you define a requirement? Ans: A requirement is the capability possessed by a solution to solve a problem or achieve an objective. Q. How do you define the role of a BA in an organization? Ans: A business analyst is a liaison between different stakeholders in an organization. He acts as a bridge, a connector and helps the complete project team work as a tightly integrated unit. Since stakeholders belong to different domains (e.g. finance, business, marketing) it’s very important for a business analyst to be able to sort and balance the needs of these stakeholders while fulfilling the business objectives at the same time. Q. What is your requirement elicitation strategy? Ans: The elicitation strategy depends upon the type of the project. One can take advantage of direct collaboration with client and have facilitated workshops, interviews and observe the end users. In conjunction, we can use techniques that provide us with more precise information like prototype and scenario building. Q. What are the best practices you follow while writing a use case? Ans: The following are the best practices that are followed to write a clear and well documented use case: Capture both functional and non-functional requirements in a use case. Include use case diagrams along with the use case. Include the UI details/notes in the use case. Q. What do you know about scope creep? Ans: Scope creep, also known as requirement creep is a term that denotes uncontrolled changes/deviation in the project’s scope without an increase in the other resources (schedule, budget) of the project. Scope creep is a risk to the project and is usually caused by poor project management, improper documentation of project’s requirements and poor communication between the project’s stakeholders. Q. What are the skills that a business analyst must possess? Ans: A business analyst must possess fundamental skills such as elicitation skills, problem solving skills, communication and management skills. Alongside, he must have knowledge of IT skills, Software development understanding and domain knowledge regarding the domain he is working in. For more details read here. Q. How do you avoid scope creep? Ans: Scope creep is a hindrance to the project’s success and could be avoided by: Clearly document the scope of the project. Following proper change management. Informing the effects of change to the affected parties before making a change. Documenting the new requirements in the project log. Refrain from adding additional features to the existing functionalities (also called Gold Plating) Q.How do you deal with difficult stakeholders? Ans: Stakeholders sometimes could be difficult to deal with but we could overcome this situation by: Patiently listening to them and being polite. Make them understand the situation from a prospective they understand. Show a commitment to working with them. Make them realize how their interests will be realized when they are more open and collaborative. Engage them and make them realize that their contribution is valued. Q. When are you done with requirements? Ans: We consider the requirements are complete when: They are elicited from all the stakeholders from all they key stakeholders of the project. They align with the project’s business case. When they could be done with the resources available i.e. attainable. When the stakeholders of the project are in consensus with the elicited requirements. All the requirements which pass the above four criteria, they are considered to be as formal and final. These requirements re then documented and become a part of the project scope. Q. What is the importance of a flow chart? Ans: Simply, flow chart explains the flow of a process through symbols and text. It is important because it: It displays information graphically which is both clearer and easy to grasp. Helps in process documentation. Helps programmers to write the logic. Aids testing and troubleshooting. Q. What is UML modeling? Ans: UML (Unified Modeling Language) is a general-purpose modeling language, which is designed to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system. A modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information or knowledge or systems in a structure that is defined by a consistent set of rules. The rules are used for interpretation of the meaning of components in the structure. Q. Why do we use Activity diagram? Ans: Activity diagram is a graphical depiction/flowchart of actions, representing a stepwise listing of activities. We use activity diagrams for the description of those business processes that describe the functionality of the business system. Q. What are some of the common tools that a business Analyst uses? Ans: MS Visio, Enterprise Architect, Rational Requisite Pro, MS PowerPoint, MS Word, MS Excel, DOORS, Balsamiq. You could learn more about these tools here. Q. What documents a Business Analyst should deliver? Use case documents Process/business flow documents Requirement traceability matrix document (RTM) Functionality matrix (FM) Functional requirement specification document (FRS) System requirement specification document (SRS) Activity/sequence diagrams Business requirement document (BRD) Q. How do you manage rapidly changing requirements? Too many changes can be detrimental to the success of the project and hence requirements should be managed carefully. We could do so by following a strict ‘Change control’ plan, according to which: We document when the change was requested, its description and its severity. We assess whether the change is in line with the business objective of the project. We then analyze the effects of change on the project constraints. We communicate the tentative schedule, cost and resources expenditure to all the stakeholders. We implement the change only when all the stakeholders are in consensus with the revised project constraints. Q. What are the non-functional requirements? Ans: Nonfunctional requirements or ‘qualities’ of a system are the requirements that are used to judge the operation of a system. These requirements define how a system is supposed to ‘be’. E.g.: Throughput, usability, reliability, scalability and security Q. What do you think is better, the Waterfall Model or Spiral Model? Ans: Each project has got different and unique needs and thus the SDLC phases should be chosen based on the specific needs of the project. In brief: Waterfall model follows a structured approach with each phase having specific deliverables. But, it has little flexibility and adjusting scope later is very difficult. In spiral model, estimates of project constraints become more realistic as the work progresses and it involves the developers early in the project. But, it takes more time and high cost to reach the final product. Q. What do you know about a misuse case? Ans: A misuse case is inverse of a use case and documents the scenarios that should not happen within the system. The actions depicted in a misuse case can be performed by any person or entity in order to harm the system. Thus, misuse case are usually used in the field of IT security and data protection. Q. What are the use of configuration management and version control? Ans: Configuration management is everything that you need to manage in terms of a project. This includes software, hardware, tests, documentation, release management, and more. Configuration management includes, but is not limited to, version control. Version control is saving files and keeping different versions of them, so you can see the change over time. Q. Describe your understanding regarding high level and low level use cases. Ans: The high level use case usually refers to the entire business process whereas when it is divided into smaller units, the outcome or the sub units are what are then referred to as the low level use case. Q. Please explain the use of SDD. Ans: This is the abbreviation of the term System Design Document; it acts as the mediator between business users and the system developers so as the system developers may understand the business requirements of the system they are developing in order to know where to put emphasis and end up with a quality and objective based system. Q. What is Pareto Analysis? Ans: Pareto analysis is a technique which is used to identify the issue that are causing the most number of defects. The issues and their respective defects are plotted in a bar graph and the issue which is causing the highest amount of defect is addressed first. Pareto analysis is considered as a creative way of looking at causes of problems as it organize data into logical segments for better analysis, comprehension and communication. Q. What can you tell us about BPMN? Ans: BPMN stands for Business Process Model and Notation. It’s a global standard for graphically representing business process in the form of a diagram. BPMN contains a set of graphic elements which are used by business users and developers to create activity flows and processes. BPMN's four basic element categories are: Flow objects: Events, activities, gateways Connecting objects: Sequence flow, message flow, association Swim lanes : Pool, lane Artifacts: Data object, group, annotation Q. Explain the difference between a task and an activity with respect to BPMN Ans: Activity is a generic term that is used to denote a process/sub process and is a collection of a task or group of tasks whereas a task is a self-contained piece of work. Q. Are you aware of JAD? Ans: Joint Application Development (JAD) consists of a structured workshops session between end user/client, project manager, business analyst, technical team and subject matter experts (SME) to facilitate the design and development of the product. Applications developed through JAD development approach has higher customer satisfaction and less number of errors as the end user is directly involved in the development process. Q. Do you know about the term ‘force-field analysis’? Ans: Force-field analysis aids in making decisions by identifying the factors for and against a proposed change to the system. The ‘for’ and ‘against’ factors are tabulated and are then analyzed, discussed and evaluated for their impact on the change. Q. What are Test cases? Ans: A test case is a document which contains listing of all the possible scenarios that could happen based on a respective use case. Thus, every test case is developed with a use case as a base. A test case contains main flow, positive scenarios, negative scenarios and scenarios covering non-functional requirements also. A single use case could contain many test cases and these cases are clubbed to make a test script. Test Cases are written in a testing tool like Test Director, but they can be also be written in MS Word. The audience for a test case are the QA testers. Q. What are the different testing techniques you use? Ans: The aim of testing is to verify and validate the quality of a developed functionality according to the project requirements. A BA does various types of testing, which are: Black box testing: This is a functional testing where a BA validates that the output generated by the system is as per the requirements/use case Unit Testing: A BA does unit testing on a developer’s machine to make sure the requested functionality is being achieved. Integration Testing: This type of testing is done when more than one piece of code are integrated to realize a functionality. A BA does integration testing to make sure than the system is performing as expected after different modules are integrated. Functional Testing: A BA is expected to conduct functional testing to validate that the system is achieving the functionality specified in the use case/functional requirement specification document (FRS). Acceptance Testing: A BA along with the client, does the acceptance testing to validate that the system is performing as per the business requirements and the product’s acceptance criteria. Regression Testing: Regression testing is done after a modification has been made to the existing system. Its aim is to make sure that all the system functionalities are working as expected. Beta Testing: A BA along with the testing team, does the beta testing and it is done on a pre-production version of the product. This testing is done to make sure that the functional and non-functional requirements of the system are met. Q. Tell me about SaaS Ans: SaaS is Short for Software as a Service and it is a software delivery model under which a software and its associated services are remotely accessed by an end user as a web based service. E.g. Facebook, which is deployed over internet and the users access its services by an internet enabled device. Q. What problems a Business Analyst could face during requirements gathering? Ans: Some of the problems faced by a BA during requirements gathering are: Lack of Clarity in the Scope of the Business requirements Misalignment of the requirements with the business case of the project Ill management of Business Requirements Constantly changing requirements Unavailability of the key stakeholders Communication gap between the stakeholders Q. Could you describe the main qualities of a good requirement? Ans: The golden rule to measure the quality of a good requirement is the ‘SMART’ rule. According to this rule a requirement should be: Specific: The requirement should be specific so that it could be properly documented Measurable: We should be able to measure the success criteria of the requirement by different parameters Attainable: The requirement should be possible to attain with the given resources Relevant: The requirement should be in line with the project’s business case Timely: The requirement should be posed in time i.e. early in the project life cycle. Q. What are different diagrams that a BA should know about? Ans: There are a couple of different diagrams about which a BA should have concrete knowledge. They are: Entity relationship diagram, data flow diagram, use case diagram, class diagram, activity diagram, sequence diagram, collaboration diagram, component diagrams and deployment diagrams. Q. What are the main responsibilities of a BA? Ans: A business analyst is expected to visualize the ‘big picture’ and his responsibilities extends towards both the business side as well as the technology side of the project. The major responsibilities that he is expected to fulfill are: Ascertain the feasibility of the solution/project/product. Analyze, organize and document requirements. Liaise and enhance communications with stakeholders. Clarify doubts, concerns regarding the solution to be developed. Conduct unit testing and verify the development is as per the requirements Gain acceptance/approval of the deliverables from the client. Document and prioritize change requests from the client. Create final product documentations, achieve records and document project lessons learned. Q. What are the different analysis techniques employed by a BA? Ans: The major business analysis techniques used by a BA are: interview, SWOT analysis, facilitated workshop, brainstorming, observation, prototyping and root cause analysis. Q. What is a 100-point method? Ans: The 100-point method is a prioritization method that can be used to prioritize items in a group environment. Each person within the group is given 100 points which they can distribute as votes across the available items. Q. What do you know about 8-omega? Ans: 8 Omega is a business change framework to improve the existing business processes. Based on its name, this framework consists of 8 lifecycle phases namely; Discover, Analyze, Design, Integrate,Implement, Manage, Control and Improve. Also, it address 4 key perspectives of business i.e. Strategy, People, Process and Technology. Q. What is FMEA and why it’s used? Ans: FMEA stands for ‘Failure Mode and Effects Analysis’ and it is used for failure analysis, risk analysis and quality engineering. It involves reviewing components, systems and subsystems on parameters like functional, design and process to identify failure models. The resulting data is then used for risk management and mitigation. Q. What is a use case ? Ans: A use case is a methodology used in requirement analysis to identify, organize and document the requirements. Following are the main characteristics of a use case: Contains both functional and non-functional requirements Describes the flow of events/scenarios Defines the actors involved in the scenarios Contains main flow, alternative flows and exceptional flows. Contains business rules and associated diagrams. Use cases can be used at various stages of a project and its audiences are both technology and business. Q. Tell us the difference between an alternate flow and an exception flow of a use case? Ans: Alternate flow are the alternative actions that can be performed apart for the basic flow and might be considered as an optional flow whereas Exception flow is the path traversed in case of the error or an exception being thrown. For e.g. on a logic page the ‘Forgot password’ is the alternate flow and system showing ‘404 error’ when correct username and password are entered is exception flow. Q. What is the user of trigger in a use case? Ans: Trigger is an action which will invoke a specific flow which would otherwise have been inactive. Q. What all diagrams are used to visualize a use case? Ans: Use Case Diagram, Activity diagram, Sequence diagram, Communication diagram and State machine diagram. Q. Please explain the term Use Case Points Ans: Use Case Points are normalized unit of measurement used to size and estimate the cost of work that is to be done on a system. Q. What is use case generalization and actor generalization? Ans: In the context of use case modelling, sometimes two or more use cases share a common structure and behaviors. When this happens, we create a new use case that describes the shared parts of its parent use cases. Similarly, actor generalization is the relationship between two actors in a use case where the child actor inherits the properties of a parent actor. Q. What are the advantages of unit testing? Ans: Unit testing is the type of testing which is done at the developer’s desk and if a BA conducts unit testing he is able to find a defect before it gets integrated with other codes. This way, a bug gets identified early and is usually fixed in less duration. Q. Elucidate the difference between assumptions and constraints Ans: Assumptions are scenarios that are considered to be as facts while a product is being designed/developed and constraints are restrictions that are imposed and have to be mandatorily followed. Q. Explain Kano analysis Ans: Kano analysis is a quality measurement process aimed at categorizing and prioritizing the customer requirements in an effort to increase the customer’s satisfaction. Q. What is a RACI matrix? Ans: RACI matrix is a type of responsibility assignment matrix used to assign roles and responsibilities within the project team. The acronyms stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed. Q. How can you explain the user centered design methodology? Ans: It all depends on the end users. In such scenario, we develop the system with a user’s point of view. Who are the end users, what they require etc. Personas are basically social roles, performed by any actor or character. It is derived from a Latin word meaning character. In marketing terminology, it represents group of customers/end users. Q. How do you define Personas? Ans: Personas are used instead of real users that assist developers and technical team to judge the user behavior in different scenarios, more clearly. Personas are basically social roles, performed by any actor or character. It is derived from a Latin word meaning character. In marketing terminology, it represents group of customers/end users. Q. Define Application Usability? Ans: Application usability is actually the quality of the system that makes the system useful for its end users. System’s usability is good if it is capable of achieving users’ goals. Personas are basically social roles, performed by any actor or character. It is derived from a Latin word meaning character. In marketing terminology, it represents group of customers/end users. Q. Define OLTP Systems? Ans: OLPT stands for On-Line Transaction Processing; such systems are capable to perform database transactions and are meant to provide good speed for database transactions. These systems are mainly used for data entry and retrieving data from the database. Q. Do you have any idea about Pugh Matrix? Ans: Pugh Matrix is used to decide about the most optimal and alternate solutions. This technique is now a standard part of Six Sigma technique. It is also known as problem or design matrix. Q. What BPMN stands for? Ans: It is Business Process Model and Notation. It is a graphical representation of business processes. Q. Define BPMN Gateway? Ans:BPMN Gateway is a processing modeling component that is used to control flow of interaction, sequence of processes. Q. Define BCG Matrix? Ans: The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) matrix is developed to analyze several of business processes and new product offerings from companies. It is a useful tool that can be used in portfolio analysis, strategic management, product management, and brand marketing. Q. Differentiate between Fish Model and V Model? Ans:Fish model is comparatively very costly and time consuming, while, V model requires less time and cost. Moreover, Fish model is used when there were no ambiguities in the customers’ requirements. Otherwise, other model is preferred. Agile Business Analyst Interview Question and Answers Q. Can you elucidate something about agile? Ans: Agile is a software development methodology in which the development is carried out iteratively and the requirements evolve through continuous inspection and adaptation. Some of the most commonly used agile software development methods/frameworks are: Adaptive Software Development (ASD), Extreme Programming (XP), scrum and kanban. Q. What can you tell us about Scrum? Ans: Scrum is the most widely used process framework for agile development. Concepts of scrum include: Sprint: It’s the basic unit of Scrum development and is restricted to a specific duration Product backlog: An elaborate listing of all the product’s requirements. Daily scrum meeting: Each day during the sprint, the project team assembles and discusses what was achieved yesterday, what is due today and the roadblocks faced. This meeting is strictly timed for 15 minutes. Sprint Review Meeting: a meeting that reviews what was achieved in the course of the sprint and what is left. Sprint Retrospective: team members reflect on the past sprints to learn from the previous mistakes and continuously improve. Q.What is the purpose of the sprint planning meeting? Ans: The spring planning meeting is held at the start of every sprint and comprises of the project team, product owner and the scrum master. The aim of this meeting is to: Ascertain the capacity of the team for the current sprint. Prioritize the items from the product backlog that are to be completed in the current sprint. Select the items from the product backlog to be done in the current sprint based on the capacity of the team. Plan the work and assign responsibilities for complete sprint duration. The complete duration of the spring planning meeting is eight hours. Q.What are the advantages of agile methodology over the other software development methodologies? Ans: Agile development, due to its innate nature, is both iterative and incremental. Owing to this characteristic, all the development aspects (design, quality, requirements) are constantly reviewed and improved progressively with each sprint. Thus, the product could be adapted at any time based on the client’s need and the level of customer satisfaction is very high. Whereas, in the conventional development methodologies, each project phase is only traversed once which restricts the flexibility to incorporate new requirements or modify existing requirements. Q.How do you define a sprint backlog? Ans: Sprint backlog is a collection of requirements that the development team must achieve in the next sprint. A sprint backlog is created based on the development team’s capacity and the priority of the requirements. Conversely, a product backlog is a prioritized list of high-level requirements of the product. Q. Why do we use a sprint burndown chart? Ans: A sprint burndown chart is graphic visualization of the rate of progress of the current sprint. This chart is updated daily over the course of a sprint. Q. Who all constitute a Scrum Team? Ans: Scrum Team comprises of Product Owner, Scrum Master and the Development Team Q. Tell us the responsibilities of a Product Owner and Scrum Master Ans: The responsibilities of a Product Owner: Primary stakeholder of the project/product Create, edit and prioritize user stories Add user stories to the product backlog Different from the scrum master role The responsibilities of a Scrum Master: A facilitator to the project team Makes resources available to the project team Enforces the scrum rules on the team Manage and encourage the project team Chairs and arrange stand up meetings Q. What do you know about the term ‘Spike’ in relation to scrum? Ans: A spike is a time bound activity to conduct analysis or answer question rather than producing shippable product. Spikes are usually planned to take place in between sprints. Q. What is the Velocity of a sprint? Ans: Velocity of a sprint is the total amount of work the development team is capable of doing over the duration of the sprint. Velocity for a sprint is agreed upon based on the historical data available about the previous sprint of the project. Q. What is a ‘Story Board’? Ans: The progress of an agile project is represented by a story board. To do so, a white board is divided in four columns ‘To do’, ‘In Progress’, 'Test’ and ‘Done’ and post It notes are placed in each column indicating the progress of individual development item (user story/task). This way, everybody is aware of the current status of the project and of the user stories as well. Q. Are you aware of the term ‘Tracer Bullet’? Ans: The tracer bullet is a spike with the current architecture, current technology set, and current set of best practices which results in production of quality code. Q. What do we mean by the terms ‘Impediment’ and ‘ScrumBag’? Ans: Impediment denotes the ‘cause’ that is hindering the team member to work to its fullest capability and ScrumBag refers to the person, group, or any other blockers that could be a factor for Impediment. Q. How do you define a user story with respect to Agile? Ans: A User story is document which defines the requirement of a system/project/product in the agile environment. They dictate the ‘who', 'what' and 'why' of a requirement. To explain a requirement, a number of user stories might get created with each one of them defining a specific aspect of the requirement. These user stories are the prioritized based on their importance, broken down into tasks followed by the developers estimating the duration of completion of each of these tasks. Q. Have you heard of the term INVEST in relation to scrum? Ans: INVEST is a mnemonic describing the characteristics of a good user story: Independent – The user story shouldn’t have any dependency on any other user story Negotiable – They could be changed and reframed Valuable – They are able to add value to the end product Estimable – It should be possible to estimate them for better planning Scalable – they should be small sized and manageable Testable – the tester should be able to verify the end result of the user story Q. How is an epic useful in an agile project? Ans: While managing a large project, there are a lot of requirements spread across multiple domains of the project and it becomes difficult to manage such large number of requirements. Thus, these requirements are documented in form of user stories and the user stories belonging to the same section of the project are clubbed to form an ‘Epic’. An epic is considered as complete only when all the user stories (and their respective tasks) belonging to it are complete. Q. What do you know about Planning Poker? Ans: Planning Poker is an agile planning technique aimed at gaining consensus on the estimated time to complete an activity. Team members are given Planning Poker cards with values like 1,2,3,4 and these values represent the estimation unit (hours, days) Then, a user story is discussed and the team members are called to disclose the duration that an activity is expected to take by displaying a Planning Poker card. If all estimators selected the same value, that becomes the estimate. If not, the estimators discuss their estimates and the same process is repeated until the complete team reaches a consensus. Contact for More On Business Analyst Online TrainingContinue reading
CCSA Interview Questions
Q.Where You Can View The Results Of The Checkpoint? Ans: You can view the results of the checkpoints in the Test Result Window. Note: If you want to retrieve the return value of a checkpoint (a boolean value that indicates whether the checkpoint passed or failed) you must add parentheses around the checkpoint argument in the statement in the Expert View. Q.What’s The Standard Checkpoint? Ans: Standard Checkpoints checks the property value of an object in your application or web page. Q.Which Environment Are Supported By Standard Checkpoint? Ans: Standard Checkpoint are supported for all add-in environments. Q.Explain How A Biometric Device Performs In Measuring Metrics, When Attempting To Authenticate Subjects? Ans: False Rejection Rate Crossover Error Rate False Acceptance Rate Q.What’s The Image Checkpoint? Ans: Image Checkpoint check the value of an image in your application or web page. Q.Which Environments Are Supported By Image Checkpoint? Ans: Image Checkpoint are supported only Web environment. Q.What’s The Bitmap Checkpoint? Ans: Bitmap Checkpoint checks the bitmap images in your web page or application. Q.Which Environment Are Supported By Bitmap Checkpoints? Ans: Bitmap checkpoints are supported all add-in environment. Q.What’s The Table Checkpoints? Ans: Table Checkpoint checks the information with in a table. Q.Which Environments Are Supported By Table Checkpoint? Ans: Table Checkpoints are supported only ActiveX environment. Q.What’s The Text Checkpoint? Ans: Text Checkpoint checks that a test string is displayed in the appropriate place in your application or on web page. Q.Which Environment Are Supported By Test Checkpoint? Ans: Text Checkpoint are supported all add-in environments. Q.What Is Stealth Rule In Checkpoint Firewall? Ans: Stealth Rule Protect Checkpoint firewall from direct access any traffic. Its rule should be place on the top of Security rule base. In this rule administrator denied all traffic to access checkpoint firewall. Q.What Is Cleanup Rule In Checkpoint Firewall? Ans: Cleanup rule place at last of the security rule base, Its used to drop all traffic which not match with above rule and Logged. Cleanup rule mainly created for log purpose. In this rule administrator denied all the traffic and enable log. Q.What Is Explicit Rule In Checkpoint Firewall? Ans: Its a rule in ruse base which is manually created by network security administrator that called Explicit rule. Q.What Is 3 Tier Architecture Component Of Checkpoint Firewall? Ans: Smart Console. Security Management. Security Gateway. Q.What Is The Packet Flow Of Checkpoint Firewall? Ans: SAM Database. Address Spoofing. Session Lookup. Policy Lookup. Destination NAT. Route Lookup. Source NAT. Layer 7 Inspection. Q.Explain Which Type Of Business Continuity Plan (bcp) Test Involves Shutting Down A Primary Site, Bringing An Alternate Site On-line, And Moving All Operations To The Alternate Site? Ans: Full interruption. Q.Explain Which Encryption Algorithm Has The Highest Bit Strength? Ans: AES Q.Give An Example For Simple, Physical-access Control? Ans: Lock. Q.Which Of The Following Is Not An Auditing Function That Should Be Performed Regularly? Ans: Reviewing performance logs. Q.Explain How Do Virtual Corporations Maintain Confidentiality? Ans: Encryption. Q.Explain What Type Of Document Contains Information On Alternative Business Locations, It Resources, And Personnel? Ans: Business continuity plan. Q.Explain Which Of The Following Is The Best Method For Managing Users In An Enterprise? Ans: Place them in a centralized Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Q.What Are Enterprise Business Continuity Plan (bcp)? Ans: Accidental or intentional data deletion Severe weather disasters Minor power outages Q.Explain Which Type Of Business Continuity Plan (bcp) Test Involves Practicing Aspects Of The Bcp, Without Actually Interrupting Operations Or Bringing An Alternate Site On-line? Ans: Simulation. contact for more on Checkpoint firewall online trainingContinue reading
Ethical Hacking Interview Questions
IOT Interview Questions
OpenStack Interview Questions
Q.What You Mean By Tenant And Role Regarding Openstack ? Ans: In OpenStack, the authorization level of the user is called role and the group of users is called tenant. Q. What Types Of Storage Openstack Compute Provides? Ans: OpenStack provides two classes of block storage: Volume Storage: It is persistent and not dependent on any particular instance. Volumes are created by users and within Quota Ephemeral Storage: It is associated with a single instance.They effectively disappear when a virtual machine is terminated. Q. Define Openstack? Ans: OpenStack is a set of software tools for building and managing cloud computing platforms for public and private clouds. Q. Give An Overview Of Openstack Services? Ans: OpenStack offers services like : Glance: Manages images in different formats Ceilometer: Openstack for billing Cinder: Provides persistent block storage Neutron: Enables users to create and attach interfaces to networks Nova: Provides instances on user’s demand Swift: Storage platform integrated directly into applications Heat: Allows automated infrastructure deployment Keystone: Provides authorization and authentication for users Q. What Are The Basic Functions Of Identity Service In Openstack? Ans: The basic functions of Identity Service is: Service Catalog: It provides a catalog of available services with their API endpoints User Management: It tracks the users and their permissions Q. Explain Modular Architecture Of Openstack? Ans: The three components that make modular architecture for OpenStack are: OpenStack Compute: For managing large networks of the virtual machine. Image Service: The delivery service provides discovery and registration for virtual disk images. OpenStack Object Storage: A storage system that provides support for both block storage and object storage. Q. Explain What Hypervisor Is And What Type Of Hypervisor Does Openstack Supports? Ans: In virtualization technology, hypervisor is a software program that manages multiple operating systems (or multiple instances of the same operating system) on a single computer system. The types of hypervisor that OpenStack supports are : KVM Containers Xen and HyperV VMware Q. What Is The Meaning Of Term “cinder” In Openstack Service? Ans: Cinder is used for handling persistent storage in OpenStack.The one that is utilized by default is LVM, called Cinder-Volumes. Q. What Is The Command Used For Unpause And Pause An Instance? Ans: To unpause an instance – $ nova unpause INSTANCE_NAME To pause an instance – $ nova pause INSTANCE_NAME Q. Explain How You Can Transfer Volume From One Owner To Another In Openstack? Ans: You can transfer a volume from one owner to another by using the command cinder transfer*. Q. What Are The Main Components Of Identity User Management? Ans: Users: It is a digital representation of a person, service or system who uses OpenStack cloud services Roles: A role includes a set of rights and privileges. A role determines what operations a user is permitted to perform in a given tenant Tenants: A container used to group or isolate resource or identity objects. Depending on service operator a tenant may map to a customer, account, organization or project. Q. Mention What Is The Command To Remove Network Interface From Bare-metal Node? Ans: To remove network interface from bare-metal node command used is bare-metal – interface remove. Q. Explain What Is The Function Of Cinder Scheduler? Ans: Cinder Scheduler or routing volume create requests to the appropriate volume service Q. List Out The Storage Locations For Vm Images In Openstack? Ans: OpenStack Object Storage : Filesystem S3 HTTP RBD or Rados Block Device GridFS Q. Explain About Openstack Python Sdk? Ans: For writing python scripts and managing in Openstack cloud, SDK (Software Development Kit) is used. The SDK implements Python binding to the OpenStack API, which enables you to achieve automation tasks in Python by making calls on Python objects instead of making REST calls directly. Q. Explain What Is Token In Openstack? Ans: Token is an alpha-numeric string which allows access to a certain set of services depending upon the access level of the user Q. Explain What Is Cells In Openstack? Ans: Cells functionality enables you to scale an OpenStack Compute cloud in a more simplistic way. When this functionality is enabled, the hosts in an OpenStack Compute cloud are partitioned into group called cells. Cells are configured as trees. Q. For Networking, What Hardware Is Used In Openstack? Ans: In OpenStack, networking is done in the following ways : Ports Vendor Plugins Networks Routers Subnets Q. Mention What Are The Networking Options Used In OpenStack? Ans: The networking options used in OpenStack are: VLAN Network Manager: Compute creates a VLAN and bridge; DHCP server is started for each VLAN to pass out IP addresses to VM instances. Flat DHCP Network Manager: IP addresses for VM instances are fetched from the subnet specified by the network administrator Flat Network Manager: IP addresses for VM instances are fetched from the subnet, and then injected into the image on launch Q. What Is The Command To Manage Floating Ip Addresses In OpenStack? Ans: Nova floating-ip-* Q. What Is The Meaning Of Term “flavor” In OpenStack? Ans: A flavor is an available hardware configuration for a server, which defines the size of a virtual server that can be launched. Q. What Is Bare-metal Node And What Does It Comprised Of? Ans: It gives access to control bare metal driver, through which user can control physical hardware resources on the same network. Bare metal node is comprised of two separate components Bare metal node Operating System: It is a base software, which runs on each node in the cluster. Bare metal node Orchestrator: It’s a management software, which acts as a dispatcher to all nodes in the cluster. Q. What Is The Command Used To List Ip Address Information? Ans: $ nova floating-ip-pool-list Q. What Are Functions Of “nova” ? Ans: Instance life cycle management Management of compute resources Networking and Authorization REST-based API Asynchronous eventually consistent communication Hypervisor agnostic : support for Xen, XenServer/XCP, KVM, UML, VMware vSphere and Hyper-V Q. What Are Components Of Openstack Compute ? Ans: Nova Cloud Fabric is composed of the following major components: API Server (nova-api) Message Queue (rabbit-mq server) Compute Workers (nova-compute) Network Controller (nova-network) Volume Worker (nova-volume) Scheduler (nova-scheduler) Q. What Is Job Of Api-server ? Ans: The API Server provides an interface for the outside world to interact with the cloud infrastructure. Q. What Is Rabbit Mq Server ? Ans: OpenStack communicates among themselves using the message queue via AMQP. Q. What Are Functions And Features Of Swift ? Ans: Storage of large sized objects Storage of large number of objects Data Redundancy Archival capabilities – Work with large datasets Data container for virtual machines and cloud apps Media Streaming capabilities Secure storage of objects Extreme scalability Backup and archival Q. What Do You Understand By Horizon ? Ans: Horizon the web based dashboard can be used to manage /administer OpenStack services. Q. What Are Commands To Generate Keypairs ? Ans: ssh-keygen cd .ssh nova keypair-add –pub_key id_rsa.pub mykey Q. How You Can View The Rules ? Ans: Rules can be viewed with the command: $ nova secgroup-list-rules myservers Q. Give An Example Where Logs Help In Openstack Security ? Ans: For instance, analyzing the access logs of Identity service or its replacement authentication system would alert us to failed logins, frequency, origin IP, whether the events are restricted to select accounts and other pertinent information. Log analysis supports detection. Q. Why Compliance Is Required In Openstack ? Ans: Compliance means adhering to regulations, specifications, standards and laws. An OpenStack deployment may require compliance activities for many purposes, such as regulatory and legal requirements, customer need, privacy considerations, and security best practices. The Compliance function is important for the business and its customers. Q. What Are Data Privacy Concerns In Openstack, How Those Can Be Remediated? Ans: Data residency: Concerns over who owns data in the cloud and whether the cloud operator can be ultimately trusted as a custodian of this data have been significant issues in the past. Data disposal:– Best practices suggest that the operator sanitize cloud system media (digital and non-digital) prior to disposal, release out of organization control or release for reuse. Data not securely erased:- This may be remediated with database and/or system configuration for auto vacuuming and periodic free-space wiping. Instance memory scrubbing, Cinder volume data, Image service delay delete feature. Q. What Is Sanitization Process ? Ans: The sanitization process removes information from the media such that the information cannot be retrieved or reconstructed. Sanitization techniques, including clearing, purging, cryptographic erase, and destruction, prevent the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals when such media is reused or released for disposal. Q. How To Create A Normal User In Openstack ? Ans: sudo nova-manage user create user-name Q. How You Assign A Project To A User ? Ans: sudo nova-manage project add –project=project_name –user=user_name Q. How You Can Remove A Rule From Security Group ? Ans: nova secgroup-delete-rule webserver tcp 443 443 0.0.0.0/0 Q. How To Display Images Using Nova Client ? Answer : nova image-list Q. How To See A List Of Roles And The Associated Ids In Our Environment ? Ans: keystone role-list Q. What Is Job Of User Crud ? Ans: The user CRUD filter enables users to use a HTTP PATCH to change their own password. Q. Where Caching Configuration Is Stored ? Ans: The majority of the caching configuration options are set in the section of the keystone.conf file. Q. What Is Alarm In Openstack ? Ans: Alarms provide user-oriented Monitoring-as-a-Service for resources running on OpenStack. This type of monitoring ensures you can automatically scale in or out a group of instances through the Orchestration module, but you can also use alarms for general-purpose awareness of your cloud resources’ health. Q. How To Migrate Running Instances From One Openstack Compute Server To Another Openstack Compute Server ? Ans: Check the ID of the instance to be migrated Check the information associated with the instance Select the compute node the instance will be migrated to. Check that Host has enough resources for migration Migrate the instance using the $ nova live-migration SERVER HOST_NAME command. Q. How You Can Change Behavior Of Dhcp Server ? Ans: The behavior of dnsmasq can be customized by creating a dnsmasq configuration file Q. What Is Orchestration ? Ans: Orchestration is an orchestration engine that provides the possibility to launch multiple composite cloud applications based on templates in the form of text files that can be treated like code. Q. What Is Use Of Account Reaper ? Ans: In the background, the account reaper removes data from the deleted accounts. Q. What You Will Do In Case Of Drive Failure ? Ans: In the event that a drive has failed, the first step is to make sure the drive is unmounted. This will make it easier for Object Storage to work around the failure until it has been resolved. If the drive is going to be replaced immediately, then it is just best to replace the drive, format it, remount it, and let replication fill it up. Q. What You Will Do In Case Of Server Failure ? Ans: If a server is having hardware issues, it is a good idea to make sure the Object Storage services are not running. This will allow Object Storage to work around the failure while you troubleshoot. If the server just needs a reboot, or a small amount of work that should only last a couple of hours, then it is probably best to let Object Storage work around the failure and get the machine fixed and back online. When the machine comes back online, replication will make sure that anything that is missing during the downtime will get updated. If you cannot replace the drive immediately, then it is best to leave it unmounted, and remove the drive from the ring. This will allow all the replicas that were on that drive to be replicated elsewhere until the drive is replaced. Once the drive is replaced, it can be re-added to the ring. Q. How You Will Install Dhcp Agent ? Ans: # apt-get install neutron-dhcp-agent Q. Who Is Openstack For? Ans: OpenStack is for service providers, enterprises, government agencies and academic institutions that want to build public or private clouds. Industries range from IT & telco to SaaS and eCommerce to finance and healthcare. You can read more about how organizations are becoming agile, reducing costs and avoiding vendor lock-in with OpenStack. Q. What Does It Mean For The Cloud Ecosystem? Ans: Wide adoption of an open-source, open-standards cloud should be huge for everyone. It means customers won’t have to fear lock-in and technology companies can participate in a growing market that spans cloud providers. Companies are already using OpenStack to provide public clouds, support, training and system integration services and hardware and software products. A great analogy comes from the early days of the Internet: the transition away from fractured, proprietary flavors of UNIX toward open-source Linux. An open cloud stands to provide the same benefits for large-scale cloud computing that the Linux standard provided inside the server. Q. Mention What Are The Three Components That Make Modular Architecture Of Openstack? Ans: The three components that make modular architecture for OpenStack are: OpenStack Compute: For managing large networks of the virtual machine OpenStack Object Storage: A storage system that provides support for both block storage and object storage Image Service: The delivery service provides discovery and registration for virtual disk images Q. What Is Identity Service In Openstack? Ans: Keystone is the most important and preferred Identity Service in OpenStack and executes the complete OpenStack Identity API. Q. How Can You Create A Token? Ans: Users first need to authenticate their Keystone credentials to create a token. Contact for more on OpenStack Online Training Write A ReviewContinue reading